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[18] Industrial Revolution.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Bartlett

January 13, 2011 Industrial Revolution I - demand for comusmer goods, mechanical goods - 1750-1850 (long time for revolution) - Acceleration of economic growth -- eco & social consequences - emrgence of capitalist economy - Development of factory system - Substituion of machines for human effort --> productivity increased (improvements to income of workers) - Changed face of Europe --> impacted lives of men, women, children (regardless of class, etc.) - Central to growth of capitalist system th th - Capitalism -- first in iTaly, low countries and across eueope 16 -17 c. (mercantilism) - Britain and france = restrictions on trade, monopolies --> gold and silver coming in rather than out - Goals: Private property and profit motive - Capitalism driven by market -- consumer consiption is important --> lead to rise in comsument consumption (middle class wanted what upper class had - but cheaper) - Greater desire for profit) - Enlighmtnet -- private protety was inalienable right - Restitctions on trade placed by absolutist gov’t -- unnatural - Greater good for greater # of people Physiocrats = Fr.. Economic thinkers, ideas ppular in 1750s-60s - put their faith in land - Physiocrats = rule of nature - Didnt believe in influence on power of manufacturing --> more emphasis on land (france = mostly land) - Freedom for domestic & int’l trade -- to strengthen frace's scomonmy - When physiocratic school was welcomed into gov’t -- couldn’t transform ideas to state - Alternative to rigid regulations of mercantile economy - Played role to open up european trade Adam Smith, The Wealth of Nations (1776) - english (scottish) - Responsible for articulating economic enlightenment theirories - How people obtained “domestic opulence” -- how marketplace evolved and developed - Specialization/division of labour - Wealth of nations = laissez faire - 1764 - met voltaire, other enlightenment thinkers, met phisiocrats and built on their theories - Wanted to see labours --> led to tangible benefits (more food, clothing, etc.) - Laissez faire economics let market be - Smith = british --> no coincidence (england became close to laissez faire economic model) Why did industrial rev begin in england? - England & Scotland (mostly) -- not ireland - England had several prerequisites for industrialization: 1. Available capital to finance new industry - Private capitals needed money to invest - England had something which only the Dutch had: a bank - It could support growth of national debt; low interest loans - Investors were keen to invest money in bank because it was stable - Financial revoltion paves way for industrial rev - French and spanish don’t have a bank -- borrowing money is more difficult and hard to estab- lish same monopoly - English gov’t protected private property -- people could invest money - Quakers, baptists, presbyterians (non-conforminst) = 1/2 of industrial entrepreneurs - Robert Owen - factory owner, middle class 2. Social & intellectual environment that favored technological innovation - Private protpery was protected - Long history of thinkers (scientists), hard-wrking entrepreneurs - Education system lagged behind other countries - Science = best studied in France - Intelligent artisans were where to look for science in England - Tradesmen took practical knowledge and applied them to inventions -English patent office - Patents protected inventions from copies 3. England has lots of natural resources: - coal deposits, iron, - Adoption of coal to fuel iron industry and vice versa (symbiotic relationship) - Coal is difficult to mine and transport -- mostly went by sea but that means you have to mine by sea --> increasing use of canal system - Water is also a problem -- need a pumping system to pump water out - Eventually Watt’s steam engine is applied to pump air in and water out 4. System of roads and waterways (canals) to transport goods to London and to sea - Bridgewater (around Manchester) - Safe roads and turnpikes --> now roads are safe but main problem is that roads are muddy tracks (no gravel) - Scots improved road system: tar (tarmac) --> doubled speed which goods made it to the market 5. System of agriculture - by 1750 there isn’t much of english peasantry (there is farming but no serfdom) - Individuals are free to leave the land, no feudal obligations --> could enter factories if they want - Freeing up of land for sale, profit, private enterprise - Put effective famirng techniques to use --> agricultural change - Drove off landowners, dislocated sectors of agr economy - In long run: more agr production to feed ever-growing production - Fields had been turned to pastures --> then grew crops - Land mostly owned by aristocracy, farmed by yeomen - Crops: corn, grain, potatoes (pottoes = very important to sustain population) - Market for goods = sustained by increasing population at home and abroad (colonies) - Significant jump in population: improvements in agriculture, decline of plague & smallpox, im- provements in hygiene - Textile industry -- industrialization of it caused industrial rev to come to england - Cotton garments replaced wool -- came from colonies and india - Profit came from benefits of slave trade --> port towns used to trade for slaves - Money from slave trade (e.g. Cotton) brought back to england’s economy - Cotton industry = first great strides of indus rev - 1730s - series of inventions which created bottlenecks which resulted in more inventions - 1733: flying shuttle invention --> increased productivity of looms, spinning wheels still the same - James Hargreaves - wanted to produce more yarn - Richard Arkwright = originally a tradesman and inventor - 1679: made stronger yarn, building on Hargreaves - Became very rich from it - “Amachine which runs by a large waterwheel” --> grater perfection than can be done by hand - Problem: too big and had to be run by water power (needed to be close to water source) - Factory system grew around waterways (originally) - Attached frame to watt’s steam engine - James Watt = inventor of steam engine (~1784-5) - Water power + steam power - Cotton gin = cleaner cotton - Results: lighter cotton clothing now available to everyone (before only available to rich) - 1784: Discovery of chlorine (bleach, sanitation) - Removed any skilled labour necessary - People had brightly colored, cheap clothes - Supply and demand committed to spiral into 19 c th - Steam power = larger factories, more production - Iron mines expanded, coal could be dug deeper - Smiths theories were coming true - Physiocrats’idea that it was sterile = not true January 19, 2011 Industrial Revolution II Effects of Industrial Revolution in 19 c.: th th - What was started in 18 c. Continued to 19 c - 1860s - England awas almost completely industrialized - England produced more stuff than anywhere else b/c of industrialization - Goods were carried on English ships to and outside of English empire -- came back with raw materials (from other places’wealth) - We still live in industrial society today - Idea of industrial society, developments of applications of industrial society -- impacted every aspect of british life and political, social, economic applications - People had to change every aspect of life to succeeed - Major effect of IR: change into modernity - Shift in population everywhere --> modern urban society - There was a population growth in 16 c which continued through 30 years’war, Fr. Rev --> bet-
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