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[26] Marx and Marxism.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Bartlett

February 16, 2011 Marx and Marxism - Frustration in working class - employers didn’t deal with/recognize problems - Socialists = served as unified movement for working class - Alternative for liberalism - Included those middle class willing to compromise their wealth for the poor - Liberalism failed to satisfy the need for leadership - Working class took matters into their own hands, created ideology for themselves to justify themselves - What do we mean by socialism? - But different people meant different things by the same term - Complication of later scholarship engaging in retrospective history (looking for connections to explain narrative) - Socialism isn’t easy to define - All socialists share the beliefs that capitalist idea of owning, producing property --> leads to economic and social oppression (i.e. private property is bad) - Need a way of addressing the problem => creates different groups who approach it in different way - Most socialists today - regulate and supervise economic issues should be identified -- so dist of property isn’t done arbitrarily - Regulation and legislation = Karl maRX didn’t agree - Karl Marx (1818-1883) - Born to a long line of rabbis in Prussia - Marx’s father, Heinrich, broke from tradition: didn’t want to be a rabbi, but became a lawyer and then strayed from Judaism - Wanted to become rich - Restrictions placed on the kinds of cases Jewish lawyers could participate in => Heinrich con- verted in 1817 to lutheranism - Marx’s mother converted in 1825 - Marx was so intelligent that he was admitted to a prominent aristocrat’s salon, where the bright- est people discussed literature, poetry, etc - Switched from uni of bonne to uni of berlin - Secretly engaged - Uni of Berlin - attracted unconventional students, faculty, etc. - Capital of kingdom of prussia, growing prominence - Marx slipped into romantic movement - wrote a lot of bad poetry - Came into contact with ideas of Georg Hegel, romantic - Gave blueprint of projecting change into the future - Hegelians were radicals but didn’t have plans for revolution - Decided to become a journalist - started in Prussia but when he started to criticise Prussia, he moved to Paris to write about prussia there - Friedrich Engels - met in Prussia, both hegelians - 2 became close associates - Friedrich Engels (1820-1895) - from family of textile producers in Manchester - Visited family factories - saw slums, lack of sanitation, despair of workers, way the owners treated the workers - Dedicated his forture to the poor - Saw the poor as eventually rising up and overthrowing their oppressors - Conditions of working class in england - one of first steps to address issue of workers, first identification of the problem - They thought they could come up with a solution to collaborate together to solve the problem - Engels submitted entirely to Marx - even though Engels wrote better, understood Marx’s ideas better - Marx = didn’t like to be corrected - 1845 - Marx was exiled from France; Prussia pressured gv’t of Louis Phillipe to exile him be- cause of what he wrote --> saying bad things about his country - Settled in Brussels behguim -- met more exiles - Communist League = the name the group gave themselves - Marx: the study of economics is the key to understanding history and form ideological justifica- tions of ideas forming in his mind - Scientific system - socialism is the natural product of human society - Marx believed his postions had to be true - Most revolutionaries thought their time would come - strong belief that revolution was at hand; popel wanted to be at the front - Most of europe was under confused liberals (unable to respond to probs of industrialization) or landed aristocrats - They felt they couldn’t/wouldn’t do anything to help the poor - There was no help offered by ruling classes --> therefore the poor w
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