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[32] Appeal of Totalitarianism.doc

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Kenneth Bartlett

March 16, 2011 - Hitler - thought he was an artist - Did nothing but roam around Vienna - thinking about how good an artist he would have been - Loner, read a lot - Read anti-semitist, nationalist texts - Social Darwinism =- survival of stronger races at the expense of weaker ones - to become su- permen - General belief - will and race mattered more than rationalism - Anti-Sermitism - powerful part of message - informed racial superiority - Long history of anti-Semitism in central wurope - Not christian anti-Semisitm => racial terms (inferior race) - Categorized by most influential writer - pan-german: evil, weak, racial qualities -- suck natural will and power from master race (i.e. Germans) - Qacuired a powerful following - Even mayor of vienna = elected on anti-Semitic platform - Openly and overtly anti-Semitic - Part of vocab of late 19 ch - When hitler was turned into brutal and anti-sEMITIc tracts + gained hatred of Marxism - True master race: determined by race, power, suropior qualities => survive among europeans and take away those weaker - Marxism = crimes against racial humanity (allow weaker to survive) - Hitler pointed out that problems of european affairs were caused by poltical acts + wrong kind of people in power and making the wrong arguments - Hitler became more disturbed => felt he was cheated by society; society restricted him, ex- pelled from natural postion of society - Blamed society, became hostel => destroy society to build a different kind of world based on different kinds of principles -- pure gERMAN race - WWI - sense of purpose; HItler saw it as meaningful experience - won iron cross (highest medal in Germany) - Once WWI was over - retuned to defeated Germany - He felt germany, like him, was under-recognized - Needed a scapegoat to blame his problems on: Jews and Marxists - Jewish bolshevik conspiracy - stabbed Germany in the back - Leaders of some marxist/communist revolutions = Jewish - B/c of alienation, wasn’t able to become part of mainstram society - became part of extremists/fanatics - Became a natural leader - skill with words + complete ruthlessness - Propelled him to leadership of Nazi party (national socialist worker’s party) - Misfits, ex-soldiers, psychopathic thugs - Tried to pre-empt attack from the right - Hitler was imprisoned because of trying to lead to revlution - Used power of words - defence at trial (e.g. Versailles treaty, jews, marxists, republicans = weakness and lack of racial strength) - to develop cohereant group of ideals to publicise beliefs => Mein Kampf - leader who repretnseted will of people to provide surpieority - Sense of desperation, anger, despair => hitler provided a way out - Nazi victory - sanctioned by people - Hitler’s party - ran candidates in elections - 1928 - 2% of votes -- but it was now a national party, his ideas could be heard in Reichstag - Situation benefitted the Nazis - fragmentation of the world => crash of stock market, growing despair - More and more germans became susceptible to anger and despair - 1930: 6.5 million votes => one of the largest parties in germany - Hitler - one of the most powerful political leaders (everyone had to disuss him in newspapers, even the most liberal) - Nature of proportional voting + parties on the left couldn’t work together => nazis were more influential, very organized, simple solution - 1932: no other party could measure up to Nazi votes - Nazis refused to share a coalition not led by hitler - Communists wouldn’t work with socialists - because soc. Put down communist rev. - Jan 1933 - no party could get legislation through - something needed to break impasse - Right - industrialists, bankers, etc. Managed to convince von hindenberg to elect hitler as leader of german people - Idea: hitler would be controlled by van pappen, a catholic guy - he’d pull the strings but be vice-chancellor - Hitler, however, didn’t want to share power - Hitler and nazis were elected by german people - Feb. 1933 - situation made more desperate: dutch communist set fire the Reichstag - he was a lunatic acting alone - Hitler convinced people this was the bolshevik revolution - Convinced prez (old von hindenberg) to essentially give hirtler complete powet => control of state - Make sure that nazis would only source of authority - March 1933 - elections would, according to hindenberg, reflect the will of german people in this time of crisis - Nazis were elected => hiteler could deal not with probs of gov’t but deal wuth his enemies st - 1 : weimar rep expiement is dead = representation of local gov’t - Logo of nazis - swastika - Total sencorhsip press; no other parties allowed (ledars of them imprisoned) - Prepare for war - Nazi racial theory - became taught as scientifi
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