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[33] Fascism.doc

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Kenneth Bartlett

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March 21, 2011 Fascism - Created new approach to politics, social organization - Response to crises, gov’t failure, reaction to liberal resonse (do as little as possible, let the prob- lem solve itself) - Prominent in Europe b/w the wars: german, spain hungary - Fascism = response and way to solve problem of Communism - Italy - weird place for Fascism to happen - Itly: No terrible national humiliation, no collapse of civl authority, no extended power vacuum - Nothing so overwhelming/specific to justify to create a national trauma - Italy = new country => created by unification of places in 1850s-1860s - No powerful, dynamic, economic power (like Germany) => poor nation - Few national resources -- import - Little industry - Agricultural land = exhausted by millenia of poor agricultural techniques - Land of peasants w/ powerful, vocal middle class; dominant group of landowners and aristo- crats - Powerful - dominated politics and controlled society - Unification = mixed blessing: N. - Benefitted; S. - decayed more than believed possible b/c of brutal rule: peasants were little more than serfs with no control over economic and social lives, small middle class (focused in cities - ensured society would operate --> not strong enough to change S.) - Economy of old kingdom of naples collapse - S. - illiteracy was high, unemployment was high -- export surplus population to other countries - S- despised colony - Italy - still poor, fragmented and divided (dilect, social customs, economically, socially) --> never put togheter fundamentally, only geographically - Wasn’t great economic power able to compete with other united states of europe - Liberal democratic goc’t in italy -- only 600,000 enjoyed liberal rights; S - couldn’t read there- fore couldn’t vote - Very few had access to public afairs ==> few had influence on the country (less than 10% had the ability to vote) - Only privileged and elite had access to power - After 1912: lower had the right, but there was no tradition in it ==> didn’t want to - Roman Catholic Church --- Pope Pius didn’t want to recognize Italian state --> to him, king- dom of italy didn’t exist - Cahotlics divded b/w religious lives and political lives - Church wasnted to go back to pre-1870 (before founding kingdom of italy) - Men of high moral temper (qualities needed for high office and leadership, those who could benefit the nation) - put themselves out of poltical postion => Catholics first, politicians second - Who were appointed to be officials of new italian state? Northerners imposed by central gov’t over south, who didn’t speak the southern dialect - Memory of being oppressed people -- so deep after 300 years - If you paid your taxes - you supported oppression from hapsburgs - Not paying taxes - individualism - Explsion of nationalism - at last they achieved their own country -- propaganda: they woukd do great things - Roman empire would be reborn, they’d dominate w. Culture as they had with the arts, will be- come great military power, will become colonial power again… - Essentially, the politicians believed their own propaganda - Redeem the unredeemed parts of peninsula still controlled by foreign powers -- still controlled byAutro-Hungarian empire - Promise to do great things -- politicians did stupid things - Took over/tried to take over parts of Africa => got beaten by africans - Italian nationalism stirred up => national fervor, religion - Compensate for separation of R.C. From political life + response to collected lands - Believing a dream -- nation was poor and weak - Reposne to disjunction - Fascism: Ideology of discipline, overcome being divided so long - Extreme nationalists looked for leader and structure - Leader: Enrico Corradini (1865-1931) - wrote journal - Nationalism as instrument for new moral order - Italy wouldn’t fulfill its destiny until italian pp. Were changed from what they were by disci- pline - Social engineering: create new principles and values - Liberal, bourgeois society -dedicated to pacifism and peace => won’t get you anywhere - Nationalism was the solution: identify the enemy (above) and crush it - War, imperial expansion = necessary quality - Make sure discipline will address soft italians who got beaten by slaves - If only were were as devoted to war and expansion, unification as germany and japan - Fr.. Rev proved principles were ones that animated italian unity - No democracy and liberalism - Nationalism = antithesis to democracy - New political aparty: italian nationalist party - Italians - build strong army - Recognize and select out “weaknesses” to overcome and get rid ofo them - 1 national party meeting: invade libya (then part of ottoman turkish empire) => 1s libyan war - Difficult and expensive => only established narrow italian settlement - Nationalists proved their point: strength gets us somewhere - Campaigns against liberalism, socialism, liberalism => romantic appeal for quest for power -- sort of religion - Love italy more than lives, property, liberalism - Elite of nationalists - moral courage - Attracted those who wanted violence - Violence = not something to avoid but sign of
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