Class Notes (836,221)
Canada (509,695)
History (3,264)
HIS109Y1 (536)
Lecture

[34] Europe Between the Wars.doc

5 Pages
68 Views
Unlock Document

Department
History
Course
HIS109Y1
Professor
Kenneth Bartlett
Semester
Winter

Description
March 23, 2011 Europe Between the Wars - Italy - won the war lost the peace => Fascism Britain - Suffered terribly in WWI - economic damage = just as awful - lost much of int’l carrying trade with U.S. - Many markets and seaborne trade = picked up by U.S. - Accumulated wealth = lost in battlefields of France and Belgium - Double blow th th - Since mid-19 - position challenged - end 19 c - Germany and U.S. Threat => old factories because Britain started industrialization => new countries, new markets - Every penny available had to be used to ensure Britain would not lose to Germany - Any money available in Britain able to be used to compete with new industrial power = gone - People in colonies (e.g. India) questioned why they should be ruled by such a distant nation and why they had sacrificed their lives in the war - WWI - no exultant victory like Napoleonic wars - Weakened economically, shattered psychologically => war won but at such a cost that it would be impossible to recover to pre-1914 - Very little employment - huge debt - almost inconceivable that ex-soldiers would ever work again - Pensions - families of killed soldiers, trying to rebuild a military so depleted from war - 2 million unemployed in early 1920s - Basic industries - manufacturing textiles, production of raw materials (coal and iron) = suffered greatly - Textiles = cheaper to be produced in U.S. - Coal and steel = no one needed them because there was no money to spend on it - People resuced price => reduced profit - Economic prospects of Britain = desperate - Working class = fighting to make things fairer, more democracy => people came home to find no money, few jobs (jobs available = low paying, tiny pensions) - Impossible for gov’t to deliver things it had implied: better housing, working conditions, health care, job security - Liberal party - david lloyd george - any deep interference in economic structure would disrupt in “unseen hand” -- things would come back - He was incapable of acting - Elections = liberals did not have a strong following => people looked for alternatives - Working class = rise of universal suffrage => alternatives to traditional parties (left and centre -- liberals and conservatives) - People looked for socialism -- labour party - trade union - 1923 - labour party surpassed liberals - popular appeal - Socialism as alternative to liberals => polarization of left and right - Liberal party wasn’t happy - tried to fight back => draw some members of left back to centre -- coalition - Ramsay MacDonald (d.1937) - 1 labour P.M. Of britain - seemed that labour party was rising - Coalition wouldn’t work = differences were too great (1924 - collapsed) - Conservatives, traditional ruling elites = very scared of labour party => said labour party was secretly Bolshevik => they sounded much like Lenin - Conservatives - able to return to power because they scared people into thinking they were threatened by Communism; conservatives won - Things got worse - 1926 - huge surplus of coal and steel => solution: reduce wages - Whether to work for nothing or close the steel/coal pits - Trade union congress - general strike 1926 - polarizing act - galvanized left - has to be marxist solution; galanivzed right - marxism is at our doorsteps - Well-born aristocratic young men took jobs of strikers (e.g. delivering milk, coal) - Collapse of world economy - 1929 stock market crash - Polarization would result in some kind of coup d’etat => some kind of accommodation: social- ist solution? Property-driven solution? - Strength of british democracy - but both sides had powerful leaders - Some brits (sidney and beatrice webb -- leftists) went to Soviet Union to analyze the way things were done => Praise of soviet communism - The right went closer to those ideas that influenced Hitler and Mussolini => only solution is a fascist solution -- new discipline, new person, rational planing - state to regulate private property to achieve goals (like Mussolini) - Attracted many people => beat up socialists, increasingly anti-Semitic - Attracted terrified, overwhelmed citizens who were upset they weren’t getting what they want- ed - British parliament - flexible to right and left - but centre remained, democracy survived France - Like Britain - Suffered material damage - 4 ½ years of trench warfare - Huge population loss - Humiliation of germany - police germany and make sure it can’t rise - More tightly policed empire than britain - Better-balanced economy than britain - George clemmencaeu - strengthened, more discipline and purpose - passed along to parliamen- tary gov’t - Polarization in france like in biritna - french politics divided b/w left and right - Raymond Poincaré (d.1934) - right-wing wanted to continue harsh politcies towards germany, humiliate them as much as possible - Leftists diagreed - let’s rebuild France, let’s strengthen our economy - 1932-3 - 6 govt’s in 18 mon
More Less

Related notes for HIS109Y1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit