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[35] World War II.doc

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Kenneth Bartlett

March 28, 2011 World War II - WWII - was inevitable - WWI and WWII = really one 30 year conflict with a difficult, fragile truce in between - 2 alliance systems = essentially the same: germany and subject territories (Austria, hungary, italy) vs. England, france, russia, US - Defeat of triple alliance, harsh terms of treaty of versailles (pace treaty) => caused the war - 1918-1919, treaties determined in paris, instability of states (esp new states) => war to make the world safer, war to end all wars - Democracies that emerged => totalitarianism of right or left - A-H empire, German, Ottoman empire = unatural, no long tradition of independence, no level of statesmanship, large, composite empires allowed them to thrive and provided leadership and protection that they didn;t have after 1920 - Level of suffering, human carnage - drove so many europeans to believe this will never happen again => idealism - Conferences held to prevent int’l friction, control militarism (those who felt they’d beeen exist- ing at the expense of others or have been humiliated) - Militarism = one of the reasons why WWI broke out => argument: if you didn’t have the weapons, less chance war will break out - 1925 - major conference: european powers met in Locarno, Switzerland => prevent militarism - German minister in weimar rep. - called for meeting - germany contracted to discuss termns of treaty of versailles - Made deal w/ france -we’ll never go to war again - Attempt on the part of germans making peace w/ historic enemies (french) - Locarno - useless and counterproductive => played into hands of german nationalists (alienated them) - Those who believed germany had been unfairly treated, wanted to restore old reich of 1914 - Even more extreme (more right): loss of german territory - even alsace-lorraine - part of ger- man traditional territory - Not just extremists, moderate right also agreed - This was naohter example of socialists and pacifists stabbing germany in the back => once more humiliating germany, conspiracy - Hitler played upon this idea - 1928 - attempt to end war altogether - Kellogg-Briand Pact (Pact of Paris) 1928 - at- tempt to outlaw war itself => we are rejecting war, there must be peaceful ways to solve all prob- lems -- signed by US secretary of state and French foreign minister - Major powers on earth signed => really wishful thinking - Countries signed on but with an asterisk: as long as we’re all happy, we won’t go to war - but as soon as there’s a conflict => movement towards extinction - League of nations - est after WWI - experiment in internationalism - It may have helped if structured in a different way: didn’t solve peace => great place to talk but not for action - Russia and germany excluded - Great deal of hope for weimar rep -> reintegrate germany into european civilized life (but they weren’t seen fit to sit with victors) - Nothing to enforce civilized behavior -- Japanese invaded manchuria 1931; italiy invaded ethiopia 1936 -- L of N did nothing but economic situation in the world couldn’t support it - It was a failure - Spanish Civil war: polarized europe, provided proxy war - Spain - after decline in 17 -18 c - loss of americ
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