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[36] The Aftermath of WWII.doc

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University of Toronto St. George
Kenneth Bartlett

March 30, 2011 The Aftermath of WWII - Roosevelt met with Churchill - drew upAtlantic Charter - Reminiscent of itnet of woodrow wilson - philosophical background - 1940: US would restore full sovereignty of Nazi-occupied nations - 1943 - allies met in tehran, iran - discuss how germany would be treated after defeat of hitler => germany de-militarized; new organization to replace defunct league of nations (UN) - Victory was still a distance away -- germans still controlled much of contintnent - 1944 - changed tone of meetings; german army retreated from russian red army - eastern and central europe would have to be addressed - Roosevelt - very ill and dying; trusted stalin and believed he was a man of his word -- naivete - Didn’t want to blunt russian advance -- his party would have difficulty dealing with loss of life -- didn’t want russians to take the blunt of the fighting; stalin had no problem with heavy fighting - Series of considerations - roosevelt’s postion to stalin = very difficult - There would be time later to work out continent - Churchill disagreed = feared stalin and S.U. -- stalin needed to be controlled immediately - Balance of power needed to be identified - If russia was treated with treaties with force from allies - stalin would have whatever he wanted => nazi armies would be replaced by soviet ones occupying eastern eurpes - Churchill would not permit stalin to annex eastern europe - 1944 - churchill and stalin met in soviet union -- much be some recognition of soviet loss of life and territory - E.g. Bulgaria to soviets - Experiment in balkan states failed (estonia, latvia, lithuania) = too small, couldn’t maintain in- dependence => russia can annex them once more - Once roosevelt and americans heard of this meeting - became very angry - Rejected all provisions churchill received from stalin - Discussion among great powers w/out consultation with peoples themselves => same as treaty of versailles - R saw C as a threat rather than S - Next meeting - crimea yalta - former czars’palace - Decide fate of europe after war and hitler’s defeat - Soviets were now in place of where germans were before - Unstable, fragile states = who would determine who would get the land? - Roosevelt’s distrust of churchill => R proposed parts of british empire be freed e.g. India = Churchill wouldn’t accept dissolution of british empire - Same prob in central europe but on a greater scale -- Roosevelt didnt’want stalin to pull out - US was fighting on 2 fronts - germany and japan - Americans knew loss of life if they had to invade jpana islands would be astronomical -- can’t have a lot of americans killed => but we can have russians killed b/c stailin wasn’t facing an election - So after defeat of germany - give stalin what he wanted so that his contribution would not end w/ defeat of nazis - When these discussions took place, red army was 40 miles from berlin - Russians occupied all of e. Europe - Russians remembered attaks of poles 1920ss and nazis 1940s => ensure poland would never be an emery state again OR be taken by a western state to drive against russia => russia would have to have complete control over poland after WWII - Poland had to have communist gov’t and be governed from moscow - Roosevelt realized he trusted the wrong guy => it should emerge as indep. Nation => if it chooses a communist govt it should be its own choise - It was far too late to control stalin - Decision: free elections in poland; est provisional gov’t, represent all demographics -- but it’s hard to do so when red army occupies it -- declaration = worthless - Declarainton of liberated europe (included all states liberated by allies - even stalin signed but didn’t agree) - Stalin demanded (& received) historical russian poland - and poles would be compensated by getting part of germany => eastern and central europe - Germany: divinded into 4 military zones - soviets, americans, british, french == provide all forms of gov’t, support population e.g. Food, etc. - Idea: ensure germany wouldn never again threaten europe => take away industry and turn ger- many into agricultural state - At this point, atrocities of Holocaust were well-known => how do you punish them, who do you blame (was it in german character?) - Civilized way to deal with it - Stalin demanded reparation of such a huge kind - equal to reparations germany had to pay in WWI -- western states remembered what had happened to weimar rep in 1920s => no reparations - But something needed to be done about loss of soviet - Reparations paid by germany - US$20 million -- half would go to soviet russia - Reparations shouldn’t be paid in cash -- germany shouldn’t be so indebted to west that it would be impossible to recover => things in kind - All 3 occupying powers could take what they wanted -- took very little because they didn’t want much and germany was so destroyed - Russians took anything: railways, people’s houses/furniture, etc. -- especially since they didn’t have much -- they even took elements of cultural importance (not suppos
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