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Lecture 5

lecture 5 27 09 2012.odt

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Isabelle Cochelin

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th His220 september 27 , 2012 • march page in the calendar of the arenberg psalter • made for son of st elizabeth of hungary 1230-40 • astrology sign taurus, divine complexity, discourse of dominion, • diffusion, extensive changes of agriculture for colder climates—3 field system 1/3 of land fallowed, heavy plough 13 century • propogation/3 field system • hevavy plough, team of oxen, made of iron • very important huge impact • flemish book of hours 1500, pulled by horses ◦ could clear quite a lot of lands, land clearing doubled, whole movement assarts ◦ peasants could obtain land by obtaining new patches of land for lords ◦ scythe and hand tools gone and replaced • 9 century onwards increasign number of smiths ◦ by 12c most important tools made of iron like heavy plough or scythe ◦ last name smith, popular last name today because so many had tht occupation • increasing use of horses ◦ sheeps, pigs, cows were dominant domesticated animals ◦ amnur—80-85% had a cow, 1 or 2 pigs, several sheep ◦ important source of nutrition and labour ◦ presents of animals and the types they had ◦ before the horse was the oxen ◦ problem wiht oxen—theyre slow and you cannot turn them well ◦ domesday book in 1086 demand of william hte conquerer, went from 30-50% in 3 years ◦ increased use of horses is linked with increased market economy ◦ to reach mareket cities that were thriving its necessary you bring food to the city and bring it fast ◦ before your cabbages, eggs, get bad ◦ horses extremely useful for sustaining the village economy ◦ the invention of harnesses that allowed hourses to carry heavy weights ◦ horse shoes as well ◦ horses are fragile, cost a lot, and get sick—never fully replace the oxen • watermill ◦ in egnland, king alfred, 2 hundred watermills, 2 centuries later domesday book, 5062 watermills in england, 12century 12 000 watermills ◦ mills in general, extremely complex machine—need a lot of iron, wind mill serious adaptation in western world, show capacity to innovate and improve ◦ cluny— ◦ multiplication of watermills ◦ the invention of wind mills ◦ and implication of use ▪ first mills were for grain to transform into flour ▪ used for be
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