Class Notes (836,580)
Canada (509,856)
History (3,264)
HIS220Y1 (19)

September 25-27 -- Agricultural Foundations of Society.docx

2 Pages
Unlock Document

Isabelle Cochelin

HIS220 Agricultural Foundations of Society Tuesday September 25 2012 th - In the Middle Ages, agriculture and peasantry were fundamental aspects of society and life - 90-95% of the population were involved in the production of food - The wealth in the Middle Ages was measured by land, and most of the wealth came from the land - 90% of the exportation of goods from England were products of the land - While the peasants made up such a large part of the population, we have very little sources/evidence of their everyday life Agricultural adaptation to colder climates History and Agriculture: longue duree and changes - Longue duree, agriculture didn’t really change much after the changes that occur in the 11 and th th nd 12 centuries until the 2 world war? - Agriculture practiced in the longue duree was repetitive, the same thing was done at the same time day after day, week after week, month after month, and year after year - From the late 10 century to the late 13 century the weather was generally stable and a bit th warm, but beginning in the 14 century the weather began to fluctuate and became colder - Grain made up more than half of their diets, so any slight change in the growing of grain had a major impact on their diets and ability to feed themselves Mediterranean Agriculture and two-field system - 5000 BCE agriculture was developed, and the way it was done didn’t really change much - Grains would be planted in October, but first the earth would be prepared with the Light Plow to crush the surface of the earth - After the land was cultivated with those winter grains, the land was left to fallow for 16 months so that it would refertilize itself naturally (two-field system) Three-field system and the heavy-plow - One field was used, one was left to fallow - Heavy plow was then introduced, needed a team of oxen to pull it (so you either needed a local lord to pay for it or a team of peasants to pool together to buy it) - This allowed people to cultivate previously uncultivable land in the north - It allowed them to clear a lot more land as well - There is thus a lot of land being put to use throughout Europe th - For instance, in the late 11 century in England there was approximately 5-6 million acres of land used for agriculture, but by the late 13 century there was now 10 million acres used for agriculture - Three-field system introduced in the 12 -13 centuries: spring planting, fall planting, fallow land - The three-field system allowed people to stock more fo
More Less

Related notes for HIS220Y1

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.