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10. The Age of Masses.docx

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The Age of Masses 12/11/2012 3:26:00 PM Second Industrial Revolution  Last 20 years, as much change as the preceeding 80 years  Production of steel changed approach to construction o Not only bridges or railways o Railways  Every European capital has beautiful railway stations— sign of advancement.  Electricity o Lighting was brought in by power over o First street cars were introduced o 1890—First subways introduced in Budapest.  Later went to Paris, Berlin th  Toronto—Late 20 century brought in subways— comparison.  Chemistry o Fertilization & Gunpowder o Medicine  Greatest ills were treated/solved from this point on  Syphylis and honerrea—cured and solved.  Heroine—first cure  Gonnerea—treated with led originally; could kill individual.  And for the first time treated.  Concentration of Labour o Urbanization was rapily sped up, by end of the century, 80% of British population lived in urban centres  Same applies to Germany & France albeit not to that extent. Social Transformation  1850 London—London 1 million, greater London—2.5 million  By end of 19 thcentury—5 and 7 million.  Eastern Europe o Huge change o Vienna—million o Moscow/St. Petersburg—1 million Concentration of Labour  Urban working class  Fastest growing social class—meant challenges. o Could represent it interests only by unionism—seeking membership in Unions o Membership in said unions skyrocketed.  Germany o 3.5 million workers were unionized.  Britain o 3 million  France o Pretty damn close  Working class demands: Wage Labour Socialism Reform o Immediate benefits for members o Improvement in working & living conditions—high wages. th o Wages dramatically improved in the last 15 years of the 19 century.  Communists were pissed though workers were happy.  Men earned more than women, about 2x as much. The Good Consequences: Social Mobility  Could rise up to higher classes o Working class could move to the lower parts of the middle class. o Ex) In Germany (1850s) average consumption of meat by working class was about 60lbs per year  By end of century, it was 100lbs.  Could afford that much more.  Could buy better clothing & travel as well. o Mass production  Bicycles  Workers could now go through cities and visit relatives.  Women bought bikes for sexual pleasures.  People though society would breakdown due to increase of travel.  Skilled laborers moved to the lower middle class. o By turn of century, some expert technicians could be considered petty bourgeoisie The Bad: Breakdown of Family  Everyone had a job o Mothers & fathers had to work in ghr fields—yet they were together o In the cities, this was not the case  One could go one way, the other another—not see each other for 10-12 hours. o Children would go work. The Ugly: Crime & Prostituion  Crime & mental breakdown Increased.  Sociologists were traumatized by increase of mental illness—unable to deal with changes.  Crime increased o British example  1800-1850: average # of crimes was 5000 per year (ALL CRIMES, petty & large) th  100,000 crimes per year in the last 10 years of the 19 century.  Prostitution also increased… o Lift up skirt indicated trade. o Not new, but scale of it was new o Statistics 1880-1890  London had officially registered 4700 prostitutes.  Sociologists calculated that 80,000-100,000 prostitues existed serving the clientele of London  Were often 20-25 years old o Why so young?  Ensure extra income to ensure future.  Apartments o Changed concept of luxurious living o Until 1880—bourgeoisie had main floor in apartment buildings  With electricity & elevators everything changed:  Higher buildings  Made rich people buy the penthouses.  All the bourgeoisie bought the upper floors. Development of Mass Culture  Mass Education o Almost all governments in Europe recognized the advantages of an educated republic. o 1880 in France; 1870? In Britain—mandatory primary education.
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