The Age of Masses 12/11/2012 3:26:00 PM
Second Industrial Revolution
Last 20 years, as much change as the preceeding 80 years
Production of steel changed approach to construction
o Not only bridges or railways
Every European capital has beautiful railway stations—
sign of advancement.
o Lighting was brought in by power over
o First street cars were introduced
o 1890—First subways introduced in Budapest.
Later went to Paris, Berlin
Toronto—Late 20 century brought in subways—
o Fertilization & Gunpowder
Greatest ills were treated/solved from this point on
Syphylis and honerrea—cured and solved.
Gonnerea—treated with led originally; could kill
And for the first time treated.
Concentration of Labour
o Urbanization was rapily sped up, by end of the century, 80%
of British population lived in urban centres
Same applies to Germany & France albeit not to that
1850 London—London 1 million, greater London—2.5 million
By end of 19 thcentury—5 and 7 million.
o Huge change
o Vienna—million o Moscow/St. Petersburg—1 million
Concentration of Labour
Urban working class
Fastest growing social class—meant challenges.
o Could represent it interests only by unionism—seeking
membership in Unions
o Membership in said unions skyrocketed.
o 3.5 million workers were unionized.
o 3 million
o Pretty damn close
Working class demands: Wage Labour Socialism Reform
o Immediate benefits for members
o Improvement in working & living conditions—high wages.
o Wages dramatically improved in the last 15 years of the 19
Communists were pissed though workers were happy.
Men earned more than women, about 2x as much.
The Good Consequences: Social Mobility
Could rise up to higher classes
o Working class could move to the lower parts of the middle
o Ex) In Germany (1850s) average consumption of meat by
working class was about 60lbs per year
By end of century, it was 100lbs.
Could afford that much more.
Could buy better clothing & travel as well.
o Mass production
Workers could now go through cities and visit
Women bought bikes for sexual pleasures. People though society would breakdown due to
increase of travel.
Skilled laborers moved to the lower middle class.
o By turn of century, some expert technicians could be
considered petty bourgeoisie
The Bad: Breakdown of Family
Everyone had a job
o Mothers & fathers had to work in ghr fields—yet they were
o In the cities, this was not the case
One could go one way, the other another—not see each
other for 10-12 hours.
o Children would go work.
The Ugly: Crime & Prostituion
Crime & mental breakdown Increased.
Sociologists were traumatized by increase of mental illness—unable
to deal with changes.
o British example
1800-1850: average # of crimes was 5000 per year
(ALL CRIMES, petty & large)
100,000 crimes per year in the last 10 years of the 19
Prostitution also increased…
o Lift up skirt indicated trade.
o Not new, but scale of it was new
o Statistics 1880-1890
London had officially registered 4700 prostitutes.
Sociologists calculated that 80,000-100,000 prostitues
existed serving the clientele of London
Were often 20-25 years old
o Why so young?
Ensure extra income to ensure future.
Apartments o Changed concept of luxurious living
o Until 1880—bourgeoisie had main floor in apartment buildings
With electricity & elevators everything changed:
Made rich people buy the penthouses.
All the bourgeoisie bought the upper floors.
Development of Mass Culture
o Almost all governments in Europe recognized the advantages
of an educated republic.
o 1880 in France; 1870? In Britain—mandatory primary