Class Notes (834,037)
Canada (508,290)
History (3,263)
HIS241H1 (94)
asasd (4)
Lecture

10. The Age of Masses.docx

9 Pages
191 Views
Unlock Document

Department
History
Course
HIS241H1
Professor
asasd
Semester
Fall

Description
The Age of Masses 12/11/2012 3:26:00 PM Second Industrial Revolution  Last 20 years, as much change as the preceeding 80 years  Production of steel changed approach to construction o Not only bridges or railways o Railways  Every European capital has beautiful railway stations— sign of advancement.  Electricity o Lighting was brought in by power over o First street cars were introduced o 1890—First subways introduced in Budapest.  Later went to Paris, Berlin th  Toronto—Late 20 century brought in subways— comparison.  Chemistry o Fertilization & Gunpowder o Medicine  Greatest ills were treated/solved from this point on  Syphylis and honerrea—cured and solved.  Heroine—first cure  Gonnerea—treated with led originally; could kill individual.  And for the first time treated.  Concentration of Labour o Urbanization was rapily sped up, by end of the century, 80% of British population lived in urban centres  Same applies to Germany & France albeit not to that extent. Social Transformation  1850 London—London 1 million, greater London—2.5 million  By end of 19 thcentury—5 and 7 million.  Eastern Europe o Huge change o Vienna—million o Moscow/St. Petersburg—1 million Concentration of Labour  Urban working class  Fastest growing social class—meant challenges. o Could represent it interests only by unionism—seeking membership in Unions o Membership in said unions skyrocketed.  Germany o 3.5 million workers were unionized.  Britain o 3 million  France o Pretty damn close  Working class demands: Wage Labour Socialism Reform o Immediate benefits for members o Improvement in working & living conditions—high wages. th o Wages dramatically improved in the last 15 years of the 19 century.  Communists were pissed though workers were happy.  Men earned more than women, about 2x as much. The Good Consequences: Social Mobility  Could rise up to higher classes o Working class could move to the lower parts of the middle class. o Ex) In Germany (1850s) average consumption of meat by working class was about 60lbs per year  By end of century, it was 100lbs.  Could afford that much more.  Could buy better clothing & travel as well. o Mass production  Bicycles  Workers could now go through cities and visit relatives.  Women bought bikes for sexual pleasures.  People though society would breakdown due to increase of travel.  Skilled laborers moved to the lower middle class. o By turn of century, some expert technicians could be considered petty bourgeoisie The Bad: Breakdown of Family  Everyone had a job o Mothers & fathers had to work in ghr fields—yet they were together o In the cities, this was not the case  One could go one way, the other another—not see each other for 10-12 hours. o Children would go work. The Ugly: Crime & Prostituion  Crime & mental breakdown Increased.  Sociologists were traumatized by increase of mental illness—unable to deal with changes.  Crime increased o British example  1800-1850: average # of crimes was 5000 per year (ALL CRIMES, petty & large) th  100,000 crimes per year in the last 10 years of the 19 century.  Prostitution also increased… o Lift up skirt indicated trade. o Not new, but scale of it was new o Statistics 1880-1890  London had officially registered 4700 prostitutes.  Sociologists calculated that 80,000-100,000 prostitues existed serving the clientele of London  Were often 20-25 years old o Why so young?  Ensure extra income to ensure future.  Apartments o Changed concept of luxurious living o Until 1880—bourgeoisie had main floor in apartment buildings  With electricity & elevators everything changed:  Higher buildings  Made rich people buy the penthouses.  All the bourgeoisie bought the upper floors. Development of Mass Culture  Mass Education o Almost all governments in Europe recognized the advantages of an educated republic. o 1880 in France; 1870? In Britain—mandatory primary education.
More Less

Related notes for HIS241H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit