Class Notes (836,271)
Canada (509,735)
History (3,264)
HIS241H1 (94)
asasd (4)
Lecture

3 - Napoleonic war.docx

11 Pages
81 Views
Unlock Document

Department
History
Course
HIS241H1
Professor
asasd
Semester
Fall

Description
The Napoleonic Wars—His241H1 9/18/2012 9:06:00 AM Napoleon’s Takeover  Named himself First Consul—after taking over in a Coup d’état o When he took power, he made a declaration to the French People—that the Revolution lives on through him—that he will follow the guidelines, be true to the ideals of the revolution. o Napoleon was the final stage of the revolution.  Fighting between left & right and in-fighting between left radicals & moderists  Results of Revolution o Abolition of Feudalism o Rights of Man & Citizen  All men have the same rights as the king o Created a new system and in doing so challenged Europe (as it was still composed of ancient regimes) o To have a new political system established in such a powerful state—was not a good thing Napoleonic France—Who Was Napoleon?  Born in Corsica (island off of France in Mediterranean) bought by France in 1769—a lot of opposition in Corsica to French rule since purchase. o There is STILL resentment in Corsica to this day  After the revolution, napoleon joined the Corscican nationalists and wanted to separate from France.  Things went south for the Corsicans so he joined the revolution (Revolutionaries had the upper hand) o Clear indication that he has no principles—only joined the side with the better odds. Napoleon in France  Came to prominence in France, especially excelled in the Military Academy. o As a child, he was often ridiculed for his Corsican accent, height and because of his original Italian name. o UNTIL he blew up the class one day as part of a chemical experiment  By mid-20s he was a Major and offered his services to the French revolution First Assignment in Revolution: Free Toulon 1793  Naval base of the French Mediterranean fleet located in the South.  British & Spaniards seized the city during the First Coalition—cut off resources from the Mediterranean. o Also paralyzed the French navy  After two days of reconnaissance, Napoleon came up with a brilliant plan—forcing the Brits & Spaniards out of the port—by doing so, he freed the French navy  This brought him to the attention of the French revolutionaries  Two years later, he offered to save the revolution by firing on the French population—using artillery (Grate shot—like a massive shotgun) o Came to the attention to the politicians as an indiscriminate individual who would do everything to promote himself  Eventually his brilliance and unscrupulous activities brought him to Prominence Coup D’état—1799, 1801 & 1804  By 1799 he proved to be the only one of the revolutionary generals who was willing to participate in the Coup detat against the Directory  In doing so he overthrew the directory, formulated a consulate, made himself the first consul and didn’t think of sharing power despite there being two other consuls (3 consuls in a consulate)  He called the shots.  1801—Napoleon named himself First Consul FOR LIFE  1804—Declared himself Emperor of the French—bringing France back to where it started before 1789 o One individual decided all affairs of the state—like a bourbon monarch.  How true was he to the ideals of the revolution: Libertie, Egalite and Fraternite Libertie (Liberty)  Freeing each man in France—one of the most cherished goals of the revolution  Napoleon said he supported this but was peeved by criticism. By making choices & decisions by himself, he became a target of criticism by the French Media—especially that of Paris.  When the Bourbon monarchy was overthrown—Paris became the centre of the free world—and especially Freedom of speech as well as Free opinion  No less than 74 newspapers were established in Paris (from all areas of the political spectrum)  They had the freedom to look at the Rights of Man & Citizen o Second article promises to safeguard liberty (freedom of liberty, thought, speech) o Key principle of French revolution  Napoleon didn’t like criticism  Within a year, he reintroduced Censorship  They not only censored newspapers but theatre, movies, etc. o Censored anything that could be produced under the freedoms of thought, expression, speech, opinion.  Thereafter, by 1802—60/74 newspapers were prohibited and shutdown  By the time he declared himself Emperor, only 4 newspapers remained  Freedom of Speech was eliminated  France was also organized as a state with provinces—but napoleon created 83 departments o Each department was run by a prefect personally appointed by napoleon and personally responsible only to Napoleon himself. o New state resembled the absolutist monarchy than free society  Freedom of thought o All universities came under the control of Napoleon himself o Established the University of Paris—given the right to control every Uni in France—control the curriculum, censor the syllabus and see who is enrolled in there—professors & students—to keep tab on potential opposition o Reorganized the secret police—became modern Egalité (Equality)  Kept this implemented much longer than Liberty  Agreed that all men were equal  Civil Code o Reorganized French law—laid down that all French citizens were equal in the eyes of the law o Gave everyone legal defense when charged o To prohibit the courts from arbitrary arrest o Make sure no one could be held in jail until they were charged.  France originally did not have a single law during the bourbon monarchy but three—one for Northern France, Southern France and Paris (three separate)  Chaotic system—eliminated by the Civil Code  Napoleon did not really like the result of equality. The Legion of Honour—Napoleon’s Retort to Equality  Developed a system where people who supported him must be rewarded—shown as an example to the rest of society.  Developed the Legion of Honour—a reward system that promoted bureaucrats and military individuals—generals. o Went back to the same style as the absolutist monarchy— these rewards are mere buttons to hang on one’s chest. o Napoleon agreed, but said men are led and go for such bubbles—motivated by them and cherish them. o The minute you become distinctive from another man, it’s a step up. o Couldn’t go with a communist society—differences needed to be kept  Despite this, everyone was liable to such an award—anyone could have gotten it regardless of their standing (military, commoner, etc.) so long as talent was there & put into service for the state (Napoleon). Napoleon’s Hereditary Nobility  Developed in 1808—gave titles monsigneur and nobles, brining back to eliminated class  Though anyone could achieve said titles, by implementing this he recreated the same class system the revolution tried to destroy in 1789 Fraternité (Brotherhood)  As First Consul he realized that as long as his rule is not consolidated he will never be able to takeover the rest of the continent  To achieve stability at home—he settled the issues between French Catholics & revolutionaries o Primary target of the Jacobins during the revolution in 1791 was to eliminate the power base of the Church—remove the ch
More Less

Related notes for HIS241H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit