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The Napoleonic Wars—His241H1 9/18/2012 9:06:00 AM Napoleon’s Takeover  Named himself First Consul—after taking over in a Coup d’état o When he took power, he made a declaration to the French People—that the Revolution lives on through him—that he will follow the guidelines, be true to the ideals of the revolution. o Napoleon was the final stage of the revolution.  Fighting between left & right and in-fighting between left radicals & moderists  Results of Revolution o Abolition of Feudalism o Rights of Man & Citizen  All men have the same rights as the king o Created a new system and in doing so challenged Europe (as it was still composed of ancient regimes) o To have a new political system established in such a powerful state—was not a good thing Napoleonic France—Who Was Napoleon?  Born in Corsica (island off of France in Mediterranean) bought by France in 1769—a lot of opposition in Corsica to French rule since purchase. o There is STILL resentment in Corsica to this day  After the revolution, napoleon joined the Corscican nationalists and wanted to separate from France.  Things went south for the Corsicans so he joined the revolution (Revolutionaries had the upper hand) o Clear indication that he has no principles—only joined the side with the better odds. Napoleon in France  Came to prominence in France, especially excelled in the Military Academy. o As a child, he was often ridiculed for his Corsican accent, height and because of his original Italian name. o UNTIL he blew up the class one day as part of a chemical experiment  By mid-20s he was a Major and offered his services to the French revolution First Assignment in Revolution: Free Toulon 1793  Naval base of the French Mediterranean fleet located in the South.  British & Spaniards seized the city during the First Coalition—cut off resources from the Mediterranean. o Also paralyzed the French navy  After two days of reconnaissance, Napoleon came up with a brilliant plan—forcing the Brits & Spaniards out of the port—by doing so, he freed the French navy  This brought him to the attention of the French revolutionaries  Two years later, he offered to save the revolution by firing on the French population—using artillery (Grate shot—like a massive shotgun) o Came to the attention to the politicians as an indiscriminate individual who would do everything to promote himself  Eventually his brilliance and unscrupulous activities brought him to Prominence Coup D’état—1799, 1801 & 1804  By 1799 he proved to be the only one of the revolutionary generals who was willing to participate in the Coup detat against the Directory  In doing so he overthrew the directory, formulated a consulate, made himself the first consul and didn’t think of sharing power despite there being two other consuls (3 consuls in a consulate)  He called the shots.  1801—Napoleon named himself First Consul FOR LIFE  1804—Declared himself Emperor of the French—bringing France back to where it started before 1789 o One individual decided all affairs of the state—like a bourbon monarch.  How true was he to the ideals of the revolution: Libertie, Egalite and Fraternite Libertie (Liberty)  Freeing each man in France—one of the most cherished goals of the revolution  Napoleon said he supported this but was peeved by criticism. By making choices & decisions by himself, he became a target of criticism by the French Media—especially that of Paris.  When the Bourbon monarchy was overthrown—Paris became the centre of the free world—and especially Freedom of speech as well as Free opinion  No less than 74 newspapers were established in Paris (from all areas of the political spectrum)  They had the freedom to look at the Rights of Man & Citizen o Second article promises to safeguard liberty (freedom of liberty, thought, speech) o Key principle of French revolution  Napoleon didn’t like criticism  Within a year, he reintroduced Censorship  They not only censored newspapers but theatre, movies, etc. o Censored anything that could be produced under the freedoms of thought, expression, speech, opinion.  Thereafter, by 1802—60/74 newspapers were prohibited and shutdown  By the time he declared himself Emperor, only 4 newspapers remained  Freedom of Speech was eliminated  France was also organized as a state with provinces—but napoleon created 83 departments o Each department was run by a prefect personally appointed by napoleon and personally responsible only to Napoleon himself. o New state resembled the absolutist monarchy than free society  Freedom of thought o All universities came under the control of Napoleon himself o Established the University of Paris—given the right to control every Uni in France—control the curriculum, censor the syllabus and see who is enrolled in there—professors & students—to keep tab on potential opposition o Reorganized the secret police—became modern Egalité (Equality)  Kept this implemented much longer than Liberty  Agreed that all men were equal  Civil Code o Reorganized French law—laid down that all French citizens were equal in the eyes of the law o Gave everyone legal defense when charged o To prohibit the courts from arbitrary arrest o Make sure no one could be held in jail until they were charged.  France originally did not have a single law during the bourbon monarchy but three—one for Northern France, Southern France and Paris (three separate)  Chaotic system—eliminated by the Civil Code  Napoleon did not really like the result of equality. The Legion of Honour—Napoleon’s Retort to Equality  Developed a system where people who supported him must be rewarded—shown as an example to the rest of society.  Developed the Legion of Honour—a reward system that promoted bureaucrats and military individuals—generals. o Went back to the same style as the absolutist monarchy— these rewards are mere buttons to hang on one’s chest. o Napoleon agreed, but said men are led and go for such bubbles—motivated by them and cherish them. o The minute you become distinctive from another man, it’s a step up. o Couldn’t go with a communist society—differences needed to be kept  Despite this, everyone was liable to such an award—anyone could have gotten it regardless of their standing (military, commoner, etc.) so long as talent was there & put into service for the state (Napoleon). Napoleon’s Hereditary Nobility  Developed in 1808—gave titles monsigneur and nobles, brining back to eliminated class  Though anyone could achieve said titles, by implementing this he recreated the same class system the revolution tried to destroy in 1789 Fraternité (Brotherhood)  As First Consul he realized that as long as his rule is not consolidated he will never be able to takeover the rest of the continent  To achieve stability at home—he settled the issues between French Catholics & revolutionaries o Primary target of the Jacobins during the revolution in 1791 was to eliminate the power base of the Church—remove the ch
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