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Congress of Vienna (Review HIS103 notes) 9/20/2012 9:12:00 AM Post Napoleonic Settlement  Great powers wanted to develop a system that would prevent the rise of another French hegemon. o Another arbiter of Europe. o No one man could ever again have the power to destroy & create states—become hegemon o Congress of Vienna—1815  Three primary players: o Castlereagh Objectives  Make sure that no hegemony would ever emerge in Europe—thought it would always emanate from France  France was seen as the primary great power to create a hegemony  Make sure France did not create another hegemony— threaten the continent.  British only cared about world trade—wanted to prevent any threat to it.  Wanted to expand all over the world  Proposed a Quadruple alliance—binding all other great powers in one union to make sure France would never again threaten the rest of the alliance  Signed in 1815—bound Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Britain to an alliance, to contribute 150,000 troops each, and to remain in that alliance for at least 20 years.  Brits were happy and left Europe alone afterwards. o Metternich, Austrian Chancellor  Also wanted to pin down France but…  Concerned about the rise of Russia—second in line in terms of population after France  Considering that Russia broke the back of Napoleon—he knew Alexander wanted to expand his influence into Western Europe.  Wanted to develop a balance of power—to contain France and keep down Russia from expanding across the Polish borders  Proposed a close co-operation between Austria and Britain—every time Russia wanted to spread beyond Poland, Brit & Austria would oppose such endeavors. o Alexander I, Czar of Russia  Restore Europe back to its conservative, monarchial order.  Developed the Holy Alliance—concerned with legitimacy  What Alexander believed in was this: whenever a monarch is disposed, there was always the possibility of revolution to follow.  The best assurance for security in Europe was to restore legitimacy  Formed Holy Alliance—Prussia & Austria signed on and for 40 years these three would fight to promote conservative absolutist regimes.  Objectives of Vienna: Balance of power, put down France and keep conservative monarchial order/legitimacy Bourbon Restoration—Exemplification of these Objectives  There was no reminisce of the bourbon monarchy—after execution, there were 25 yeas of no monarchy.  The allies could have severely punished France—but they didn’t: Why? o France would seek revenge if punished too difficultly  Would have pursued more conflict o Allowed monarchy to be restored & become legitimate—have a say in international system/play a role in the European state system o France has gone through 25 years of different political systems.  No absolutism (Republic & Empire)  When Louis XVIII was restored he knew an absolutist monarchy couldn’t be restored—told population of France to the Chargin of his aristocracy  A good 50-60,000 members of the aristocracy came back from exile wanting revenge o Wanted to get rid of all the republicans and Napoleon supporters  Louis XVIII wanted to keep peace between and merge the left & right o Wanted one France o Suited the Left  How?  After his return, he issued a new constitution o Guaranteeing to the Republicans, left and bonapartists, left and right—a constitutional monarchy o Achievements from Revolution would not be wiped out— instilled a Constitutional monarchy. o Developed a parliament—that would control monarchy  Composed of Upper & Lower houses  Lower house would be elected by the population of France Problems Solved?  Lower house would only be voted on by the wealthiest of French citizens—90,000 o Majority was again cut out from electoral process  Upper house would be appointed by the monarchy o Constitution of 1814—Presented as a gift from the king—yet he had veto power over most laws.  First month when he went back to Versailles, tripped over the carpet—Michellean man  Tried to accommodate both left & right  But left was pissed to say the least—regarding constitution and reluctance to establish absolutist monarchy  The right (Ultras) kept bickering and criticizing the king o Too soft, mellow, lenient with republicans/napoleon supporters/leftists. o Need to lash out  If he lashed out against the remnants of the Jacobins/Napoleon supporters—CIVIL WAR  Firing of officers, etc. created an very strong opposition to the Absolutist monarchy. o 80,000 civil servants were fired due to support of napoleon o 15,000 officers of French army were pensioned off  Ultras didn’t give a fuck; wanted revenge for atrocities. Biens Nationaux  A law, issued by the king, that allowed peasants who took over the land of their feudal lords in 1789 & bourgeoisie who purchased Church lands in 1791/92 to keep them o Keep all benefits of Revolution  Right was pissed: was able to overthrow some of Louis’ laws o Got the ear of Louis through a woman—Cayla—26 year old beauty o Right used her to influence Louis’ decisions. o What really got them influence was an incident.  February 182
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