Class Notes (838,375)
Canada (510,867)
History (3,264)
HIS241H1 (94)
asasd (4)
Lecture

4 - restoration of Europe.docx

10 Pages
112 Views
Unlock Document

Department
History
Course
HIS241H1
Professor
asasd
Semester
Fall

Description
Congress of Vienna (Review HIS103 notes) 9/20/2012 9:12:00 AM Post Napoleonic Settlement  Great powers wanted to develop a system that would prevent the rise of another French hegemon. o Another arbiter of Europe. o No one man could ever again have the power to destroy & create states—become hegemon o Congress of Vienna—1815  Three primary players: o Castlereagh Objectives  Make sure that no hegemony would ever emerge in Europe—thought it would always emanate from France  France was seen as the primary great power to create a hegemony  Make sure France did not create another hegemony— threaten the continent.  British only cared about world trade—wanted to prevent any threat to it.  Wanted to expand all over the world  Proposed a Quadruple alliance—binding all other great powers in one union to make sure France would never again threaten the rest of the alliance  Signed in 1815—bound Austria, Russia, Prussia, and Britain to an alliance, to contribute 150,000 troops each, and to remain in that alliance for at least 20 years.  Brits were happy and left Europe alone afterwards. o Metternich, Austrian Chancellor  Also wanted to pin down France but…  Concerned about the rise of Russia—second in line in terms of population after France  Considering that Russia broke the back of Napoleon—he knew Alexander wanted to expand his influence into Western Europe.  Wanted to develop a balance of power—to contain France and keep down Russia from expanding across the Polish borders  Proposed a close co-operation between Austria and Britain—every time Russia wanted to spread beyond Poland, Brit & Austria would oppose such endeavors. o Alexander I, Czar of Russia  Restore Europe back to its conservative, monarchial order.  Developed the Holy Alliance—concerned with legitimacy  What Alexander believed in was this: whenever a monarch is disposed, there was always the possibility of revolution to follow.  The best assurance for security in Europe was to restore legitimacy  Formed Holy Alliance—Prussia & Austria signed on and for 40 years these three would fight to promote conservative absolutist regimes.  Objectives of Vienna: Balance of power, put down France and keep conservative monarchial order/legitimacy Bourbon Restoration—Exemplification of these Objectives  There was no reminisce of the bourbon monarchy—after execution, there were 25 yeas of no monarchy.  The allies could have severely punished France—but they didn’t: Why? o France would seek revenge if punished too difficultly  Would have pursued more conflict o Allowed monarchy to be restored & become legitimate—have a say in international system/play a role in the European state system o France has gone through 25 years of different political systems.  No absolutism (Republic & Empire)  When Louis XVIII was restored he knew an absolutist monarchy couldn’t be restored—told population of France to the Chargin of his aristocracy  A good 50-60,000 members of the aristocracy came back from exile wanting revenge o Wanted to get rid of all the republicans and Napoleon supporters  Louis XVIII wanted to keep peace between and merge the left & right o Wanted one France o Suited the Left  How?  After his return, he issued a new constitution o Guaranteeing to the Republicans, left and bonapartists, left and right—a constitutional monarchy o Achievements from Revolution would not be wiped out— instilled a Constitutional monarchy. o Developed a parliament—that would control monarchy  Composed of Upper & Lower houses  Lower house would be elected by the population of France Problems Solved?  Lower house would only be voted on by the wealthiest of French citizens—90,000 o Majority was again cut out from electoral process  Upper house would be appointed by the monarchy o Constitution of 1814—Presented as a gift from the king—yet he had veto power over most laws.  First month when he went back to Versailles, tripped over the carpet—Michellean man  Tried to accommodate both left & right  But left was pissed to say the least—regarding constitution and reluctance to establish absolutist monarchy  The right (Ultras) kept bickering and criticizing the king o Too soft, mellow, lenient with republicans/napoleon supporters/leftists. o Need to lash out  If he lashed out against the remnants of the Jacobins/Napoleon supporters—CIVIL WAR  Firing of officers, etc. created an very strong opposition to the Absolutist monarchy. o 80,000 civil servants were fired due to support of napoleon o 15,000 officers of French army were pensioned off  Ultras didn’t give a fuck; wanted revenge for atrocities. Biens Nationaux  A law, issued by the king, that allowed peasants who took over the land of their feudal lords in 1789 & bourgeoisie who purchased Church lands in 1791/92 to keep them o Keep all benefits of Revolution  Right was pissed: was able to overthrow some of Louis’ laws o Got the ear of Louis through a woman—Cayla—26 year old beauty o Right used her to influence Louis’ decisions. o What really got them influence was an incident.  February 182
More Less

Related notes for HIS241H1

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit