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Lecture 7

Lecture 7 - 1830 Revolutions Oct. 8.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Vasilis Dimitriadis

Lecture 7 - 1830 Revolutions Tuesday, October 8, 2013 11:43 PM  Midterm Test:  What you have learned from the readings and lectures?  Two parts:   ID part major indithdual or number of individuals who had some impact on 19 history OR a number of historical events. Identify two individuals/events out of 4-6 possibilities. A short assessment of that individual’s contribution to the development of social, economic, political Europe.  Answer one essay out of 3-4 potential possibilities  half an hour. Formulate an argument about the event and provide evidence through the most important aspects of that event. Primary Issues of Concern:  Congress of Vienna was extremely successful in reinstating conservative ideology and reestablishing the old balance of power.  The very fact that they ignored nationalism and liberalism came to bite them in the rear. Liberalism pushed for a radical political change.  There were a number of revolutions yet all were destroyed.  They were rudely awakened in a few years by a new wave of revolutions sweeping through the 1830. 1830s Revolutions  Liberalism and nationalism are still alive. Both of these concepts took such a root in Europe that it was not enough. It manifests itself from place to place. France:  The catalyst of all troubles in the past century yet again led to another issue that engulfed Europe.  The cause of this revolution was interesting as Louis’s policies were quite moderate. Towards the end of his life in 1824 he allowed the accession of the extreme right.  His brother took the throne with his passing under the name of Charles X (Rheims). He was interested in pursuing absolutist rule again, and wanted to demonstrate to France and the rest of Europe that he was not a pushover.  In addition, he granted power to the Church. The Jesuit Congregation was allowed to form and gave back most aspects of education to the Church. By such demonstrations, granting so much power to the French Catholic Church, Charles wanted to demonstrate that he relies on the church but by doing so he antagonized the French middle class, anti-religious members of the French society, and the intellectuals.  He suggested the death penalty for anyone who profaned the Church, who performed any act of sacrilegious.  The Nights of Fire, Chevaliers De La Foi, had promoted the reestablishment of absolutist rule.  The hatred of religion was one of the most important reasons that caused the downfall of the reestablished version of the Bourbon monarchy.  Worst of all, Charles was adamant on repaying church members and the aristocracy for the long land. He decided to ademtify these members by changing the Bonds given to the middle class interest from 5% to 3% interest. This angered both classes, the middle class (bourgeois) were outraged as they got almost half of the return they were promised. The aristocracy wanted more.  Charles was fed up by aristocrat Martignac, fired him and created a new government based solely on the altars. The government he created, Polignac, Bourmont, and La Bouronnaye. Polignac was the sole member who did not swear an oath of royalty. Bourmont was the only general who had betrayed Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo (carried the stigma of betrayal); La Bouronnaye was the aristocrat who carried out a great deal of massacre of republicans and supporters of Napoleon.  The writing was on the wall.  The French Army itself became a sea of disturbances and a host of problems. Rather than a pillar of stability and support.  This ultraconservative government caused the French middle class to show who was in control of the state. In the spring of 1830, 220 members of parliament voted no confidence on the government. Charles X suspended the parliament, delayed the elections. The elections held in January again reaffirmed the antagonism towards Charles X. Revolution Encore  On January 25, 1830, at this moment Charles X made his biggest mistakes, the “Four Ordinances”
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