Lecture 7 - 1830 Revolutions
Tuesday, October 8, 2013
What you have learned from the readings and lectures?
ID part major indithdual or number of individuals who had
some impact on 19 history OR a number of historical
events. Identify two individuals/events out of 4-6
possibilities. A short assessment of that individual’s
contribution to the development of social, economic, political
Answer one essay out of 3-4 potential possibilities half an
hour. Formulate an argument about the event and provide
evidence through the most important aspects of that event.
Primary Issues of Concern:
Congress of Vienna was extremely successful in reinstating
conservative ideology and reestablishing the old balance of
The very fact that they ignored nationalism and liberalism came
to bite them in the rear. Liberalism pushed for a radical political
There were a number of revolutions yet all were destroyed.
They were rudely awakened in a few years by a new wave of
revolutions sweeping through the 1830.
Liberalism and nationalism are still alive. Both of these concepts
took such a root in Europe that it was not enough. It manifests
itself from place to place.
The catalyst of all troubles in the past century yet again led to
another issue that engulfed Europe.
The cause of this revolution was interesting as Louis’s policies
were quite moderate. Towards the end of his life in 1824 he
allowed the accession of the extreme right.
His brother took the throne with his passing under the name of
Charles X (Rheims). He was interested in pursuing absolutist
rule again, and wanted to demonstrate to France and the rest of
Europe that he was not a pushover. In addition, he granted power to the Church. The Jesuit
Congregation was allowed to form and gave back most aspects
of education to the Church. By such demonstrations, granting so
much power to the French Catholic Church, Charles wanted to
demonstrate that he relies on the church but by doing so he
antagonized the French middle class, anti-religious members of
the French society, and the intellectuals.
He suggested the death penalty for anyone who profaned the
Church, who performed any act of sacrilegious.
The Nights of Fire, Chevaliers De La Foi, had promoted the
reestablishment of absolutist rule.
The hatred of religion was one of the most important reasons
that caused the downfall of the reestablished version of the
Worst of all, Charles was adamant on repaying church members
and the aristocracy for the long land. He decided to ademtify
these members by changing the Bonds given to the middle class
interest from 5% to 3% interest. This angered both classes, the
middle class (bourgeois) were outraged as they got almost half of
the return they were promised. The aristocracy wanted more.
Charles was fed up by aristocrat Martignac, fired him and
created a new government based solely on the altars. The
government he created, Polignac, Bourmont, and La
Bouronnaye. Polignac was the sole member who did not swear
an oath of royalty. Bourmont was the only general who had
betrayed Napoleon at the Battle of Waterloo (carried the stigma
of betrayal); La Bouronnaye was the aristocrat who carried out a
great deal of massacre of republicans and supporters of
The writing was on the wall.
The French Army itself became a sea of disturbances and a host
of problems. Rather than a pillar of stability and support.
This ultraconservative government caused the French middle
class to show who was in control of the state. In the spring of
1830, 220 members of parliament voted no confidence on the
government. Charles X suspended the parliament, delayed the
elections. The elections held in January again reaffirmed the
antagonism towards Charles X.
On January 25, 1830, at this moment Charles X made his biggest
mistakes, the “Four Ordinances”