Audio recording started: 10:11 AM Tuesday, October 8, 2013
Lecture 9 - The Gathering Strom
Tuesday, October 8, 2013
The Impact of the French, Industrial and Demographic Revolutions
The Ideological Legacy
There was a dramatic growth of both ideologies in the mid 19th centuries. By the late 1840s, the
entire continent faced some sort of upheaval based on either nationalism or liberalism.
Beforehand, both had only been supported by the minority intellectuals, but not they were being
supported by a large portion of the population class.
Nationalism and Liberalism became widespead ideologies in Europe because Napoleon conquered
a majority of Europe.
o Ever since there was political life, the bargaining between social classes, liberalism was
undestood as the presevation of inidividual rights and freedoms.
o Thereafter, an argument and debate, a striving for political power ought to happen. Each
individual had to be somehow represented in the parliament.
o Most importantly this idea was supported and accepted by the middle class. They sought to
achieve greater power.
o The greatest beneficiary of the industrial revolution, the middle class, were able to push
o Laise-a-faire took precedent in England, somewhat in France, and challenged the political
elites of the Eastern European states.
o The further east you went, the less the continent was industrialized, laise-a-faire
o When you look at the french revoluton of 1789 and the opposition to it, a German poet
Goet stated that "a new era was beginning in history." From this revolution, the greatest
beneficiaries were the bourgeois, the middle class.
o Metternich responded to this revolution stating that "Liberalism is a moral gangrene!"
Threatening the political stability of Europe.
o The French themselves pushed forth nationalism. The revolutionnary army instituted the
Leveee en Masse in 1793, called for everyone to identify themseleves as a member of the
French state and to defend their territory. The army grew to 750 000, and conquered a
majority of Europe.
o They spread throughout Europe and 'freed' the subjugated people under the premise of
Liberalism. However, the French were undone by their own push of nationalism, the
absolutist monarchies used the threat of the French rather than liberalism.
o Just as important, the most absolutist king, Tsar Alexander, played the natonalist card and
identified the French as invaders and by so doing invoked a natiaonlist ferver in Russia. The
entire war was presented as a patriotic war. o This idea became accepted by the middle class in the mid 19th century.
When Metternich was told that the middle class is the driving force of the French revolution in the
1830s. He identified the middle class as the most important and most dangerous threat to the
status quo of Europe. They were identified in Germany as the Mittelstand who were unscripulous
and would stop at nothing to gain power.
By the 1830s, the Middle Class became the greatest beneficiaries of the industrial revolution and
the economic vervital to push forth their aims.
Even Germany fell to industralization. In Hambach showed up at a major festival, attended the
festival to celebrate German culture. Within a day, by the 28th of May, there were major speeches
denouncing the political situation, the lack of rights, and calling for the unification of the German
states. Most importantly the denounced the German monarchies and pushing forth
Republicanism. Wirth denounced the political system of Germany, and attempted to push forth
democratic rights. Germany has to help the rest of Europe to achieve this as well.
Metternich called a parliamentary meeting after that any supporter, speaker, and attender at
Hambach must be hunted down, fired from their position. Martial law was imposed in the city and
a call throughout the German states of banning any further meetings.
Metternich feared what could come about; in France the middle class had proven victorious and
had thrown out the monarchy. In England the middle class was gaining great ground on the
aristocracy. Belgium also fared well for their middle class.
The church was also greatly undermined by the French idea of liberation, the church suffered the
same fate as in France. The Churches were nationalized, their property sold. The main pillar of
European political stability was not as solid. Once the institution is destroyed, the idea is there.
Likewise, restoration left a bitter taste in many of the middle class were the const