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Lecture 16

lecture 16

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University of Toronto St. George
Anthony Cantor

HIS241H1Chapter 16 The Revolutions of 1848Mobilizing revolutionsThere were a lot of economic troubles at this time however they alone were not enough to push revolutions and revolts People were too busy protesting for economic freedoms instead of political ones The overthrow of the July monarchy in France was the spark needed to push the people in other countries into revolutionThe February Revolution in FranceThe monarch established by the revolution of 1830 was caught between royalists who wanted to return to the old form of government and republicans who wanted popular i did seventy The bad harvestof 1846 People gathered at large banquets to criticize the monarchy the pearFrancois Guizot was the prime minister under Louis Philippe who banned the banquetsCrowds later gathered in the streets and Louis Philippe abdicated in hopes that the National Assembly would put his grandson into power however it was too late and the people declared the Second French Republic The new government was unable to deal with the massive unemployment that struck France The 1848 revolution called into question all existing social structures including the male hierarchyIn the elections conservatives won a majorityThe Revolutions in GermanyFormation of workers trade unions provided little support during times of unemployment however were a very important force in political influenceThere was a clear different between German Liberals and Radicals o Both groups sometimes demanded ends to remaining feudal obligations freedom of speech and assembly the creation of a constitution and expansion of the electoral franchiseo Liberals rejected universal male suffrageo Radicals believed revolution was the only thing that could move Germany to a new political path and towards unificationThe news of the French revolution in small states forced many leaders to give into the demands of the liberals or to appoint more liberals ministersPrussia In Berlin demonstrators wanted liberal political reform in favour of German nationalism King Fredrick William IV in response appointed more liberal ministers promised to end press censorship and grant a constitution Shots were fired and as a result the troops fired on the crowd 250 people were killed in what became known as the March Days The king set the army out of the city he released all imprisoned liberals and said that Prussia would now be working on German unificationMost of the artisans in the protests had economic goals due to the hungry fortiesViolence broke out in the countryside as peasants forced land owners to accept new rightsRevolutions in Central Europe HIS241H1Wanted the complete emancipation of the peasantry the expansion of the votingfranchise greater efficiency in administering land and freedom of pressIn Austria there were few people who wanted complete abandonment of the monarchy In Hungry there were several nobles who openly supported liberal ideas their main goal was the creation of an independent Hungry Lajos Kossuth emerged as the leader of the liberals March 13 1848 students and artisans gathered demanding reform troops opened fire killing several Metternich as a result was fired and there were any workshops created to help workers There was also the creating of freedom of the press and an extension of the electoralKing Ferdinand many times tried to go back on his promises however barricades would go up he would be forced to cave There was the abolition of the feudal system which was still in practise A large push was created to create the March Laws with would proclaim Hungary virtually independent This creation of the Hungarian government was resented by many other minority groups that were not consulted Bohemia also rose up demanding autonomyKing Ferdinand left Vienna fearing he would be made a prisoner in his own palaceRevolution in the Italian States There were many revolts against Austrian rule in the North and against conservative ruleo Some rulers lessened press censorship and promised constitutions People had different goals o Bourgeois liberals political reform and unification o Radicals republico Workers benefits for themselvesFive Glorious DaysMarch 18 1848 10000 people marched to the Austrian governorgeneral demanding reforms Other cities also rose against Austrian rule forming republics and forcing constitutionsPiedmont and SardiniaNationalists looked to King Charles Albert for helpAt first he hesitated however after send out a large force to stop Austrian Joseph RadetzkyHe fought off the Austrians in Lombardy and looked to bring the territory into Italys control UnificationThere was a lot of miss understanding o People thought PS wanted to expand at their expense o Some thought Italy could be unified among papal authorityThe Italian armies were not experienced and thus defeated by the AustriansUnification had failed The Exclusive Search for Revolutionary ConsensusThe people resisting the revolutions were the ones who would lose the most from their success king nobles
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