Deficit in liberalism/nationalism—allowing major ethnic groups have a nation of their own, self-
determination, created an issue through out continent
-crop failure 46/47/ Ireland and also main land Europe continent had suffered similarly
-econ crisis 1840’s depression, swept through the continent
-created tension throughout the continent
-metternich said “we are sitting on a moldering structure recongnizing the fact that things are
simply going their own way.”
-no major thncessions were made.
-january 1848, 12 —siciliy, uprising breaks out, spread into southern Italy, from there
throughout Europe, uprising, street battles, social unrest.
-what was interesting was the revolutions of the 20s and the 30s was that the revolutions of 1848, they
took place in the heartland of Europe. Central Europe. Britain is untouched, Greece and Russia not
touched. Spring 1848, karl marx resided in Brussels and called for a revolution, yet beligium too avoided
revolution. 1 month, the Belgium beat the revolution.
Why no revolution in Spain? Why no revolution in Russia?
-Why? No middle class in Russia. No educated intelgencia, no elite. Also no middle class
implies no industrialization. No social turmoil then.
-1830s british are industrializing, they realize a revolution is inevitable, they increased the franchise
-reform act of 1832, doubled the franchise, gave more rights to middle class people than before
-400k to 680k Britons were given the right to vote. So much power came into the power
of the middle class, the only way was to give a timely concession. 40% of the british
population had emigrated to the cities.
-most important was that these british workers could at least feed themselves and their
families, Corn Law of 1846- stop the import of grain
-made sure land owning class were earning money
-Such a high tariff, that couldn’t import grain
-repelled the corn law and allowed the grain to pour in
-how they avoided it.
-Middle class was still for the most part out of power
-Beligians sobered up after seeing the 1848 revolutions
-french always claimed beligium, so when there was a revolution, beligum
-created state employment to develop the railway system, to build new roads, new
bridges, state projects, immediately eliminated unemployment, no matter how much engels or karl
marx called for a revolution. Beligians avoided a revolution.
-established “air tight” borders, sort of—they escaped the revolution -the first to follow the Italian example, was the French.
-Karl marx—the moment the working class became conscious, it was a watershed.
-alexis of tocaville “we are sitting on a volcano, and any time this volcano will blow up”. How
could this be the case, france had a revolution in 1830, the burgoise had gotten what they wanted,
getting the aristocracy out, every state position, every position in their hands.