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Lecture

The Italian Unification.docx

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Department
History
Course Code
HIS242H1
Professor
Jennifer Jenkins

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The Italian Unification (1859-1860) 11/1/2012 8:52:00 AM Review  French Empire o Dual Nature  Legitimacy—how to justify his own takeover & empire  Authoritarian & Liberal phase—not straightforward.  Going back & forth between issues and policies.  Always sought the justification for his own empire— needed international success  Look what my empire did! o 1850s—Best way to placate French population is to get an international success—the Crimean War  Bringing back the prestige lost in 1815.  Recognized as greatest power again.  Crimean War—destroyed Quad & Holy alliances and gained free hand to scheme and re-draw borders of Europe.  Gave France the freedom of Action—could do anything after 1856.  What did he want? o National frontiers of France lost in 1815. o Challenged at home by economic decline—one issue at home can affect foreign policy—need success to distract population.  1850s—France suffered Economic Decline o By 1858—economic progress started slowing down due to scandals. o Collapse of the Credit Mobilier—major bank  Financed much of the economic development in France (Railways & Canals) o When Paris was rebuilt, 2 billion franks were invested into that but hundreds of millions where ciphered out of the process. Credit Mobilier  Created economic pressure—needed to mitigate situation at home.  Napoleon III needed a way to expand French borders to redirect attention from Economic issues—present them with foreign policy success.  Coincided with the goals of Emilio Cavour, Prime Minister of Piedmont-Sardinia o Wants Piedmont to be the center of the united Italian peninsula.  Most successful state. o Had the revolutions of 1848 succeed in Italy—Italy would have never been unified—historians argue. o If a liberal constitutional monarchy was established in their own petty states. o There are at least 8 different, autonomous states in the Italian Peninsula.  They failed though, ensuring future attempt at unification. The Birth of the Historic Right  Influenced by the failure of the Revolutions o Austria stopped revolutions in Lombardy & Venetia, came back as conquerors—saw them as defeated nations.  Alienating the leading elite of these provinces—Due to this, Aristocrats wanted unification under Piedmont.  Never wanted it originally  Austrians treated them as a defeated nation.  It’d be better as a constitutional monarchy—some rights of aristocracy would be protected.  Radicals wanted revolution again. o Created a United Italian Front  This desire is what Cavour capitalized on—we have the support of all the political and social factions throughout the peninsula.  Cavour was a realist: o Aware that Piedmont alone could never succeed against Austria as exemplified by 1848 Revolutions with Lombardy & Venetia—beaten by crumbling Austria. o Need great power support for unification, can’t do this all alone. o Cavour then sought a patron for unification—found it in Napoleon III o Both had a deep-seated interest for an outstanding political success.  How was the issue Raised? o Couldn’t violate national agreements or 1815 settlement of the Italian Peninsula o Offered troops to the British during the Crimean War—needed troops to fight Russia. Brits expected Austrians to come in and fight on their behalf, but they remained neutral o Cavour Offered 20,000 soldiers to Britain with no reward. o When Peace treaty came in 1856—Cavour could denounce the unhealthy fragmentation of Italy, and Napoleon III agreed— unhealthy. o Jumped at the Italian issue because he couldn’t get Belgium or the Rhine—German Confederation.  Belgium—British opposition to gain of Belgium  German Confederation—no rhine borders, international crisis would have ensued if he tried. o Italians do have a point—Napoleon III.  I support the cause, no gains necessary.  Victor Emmanuel, King of Piedmont o Totally geeved everything. o Agreed with Cavour—if we get an ally, then we might try again for Unification. July 20, 1858—Meeting Between Napoleon & Cavour  Cavour & Napoleon meet  Lay out the conditions for the Piedmont-French co-operation  Cavour knew Napoleon wanted legitimacy, justification & recognition—he was royal blood.  Cavour offered a Dynastic link between Napoleon III and Victor Emmanuel’s family—marry his daughter (Victor Emmanuel) to his cousin.  Promised his daughter to Napoleon’s cousin.  That would give Napoleon legitimacy—there would be a unified, military operation against Austria  France would provide 200,000 troops against Austrians  As a reward: France would be given Savoy, which they lost in 1815 as part of the Congress of Vienna. What did Napoleon want?  “United Italy from the Alps to the Adriatic”  United Northern Italy ONLY—not entire Peninsula.  If he helped Cavour unify the Northern part only, they’d be dependent on French Good will. o French help allowed this to happen  Fragmented states in the South would also seek help from France.  Kingdom of Two Sicilies—would have found a relation with France more natural than that of Austria. o Due to being ruled by a Bourbon.  Every part of Italy would be dependent on French Good will and support.  What of Papal States? (Central Italy) o French defeated the revolution and got rid of Mazzini—Italian Revolutionary in 1849 o Who threatened the Papal States. o Also occ
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