HIS242H1 29 January 2013
The Russian Revolution and Civil War (1917-1921)
Crisis of “Dual Power”
Civil War and “War Communism”
Victory and Retreat
Prelude to February, 1917
Nicholas II: Was incompetent, went to the front but showed his incompetence and
Russia: Was a highly fractured country going into World War 1.
There were major strikes in Russia that frizzled out after the war.
February 22-27 (Old Calendar)
International Women’s Day (Feb 23) Protest
200,000 people in 1 state protesting this regime.
Feb 26, members of the Petrogad gerison began to mutiny. This was the beginning
on the end.
March 1: Tsar wanted to leave the throne to his brother. His brother was afraid that
his family would be in danger. The Tsar abdicates
DUAL POWER, PART ONE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT
Pavel Miliukov (Liberal)
Alexander Kerenski (Moderate Socialist) – agreed to let out political dissidence,
Goal – Make sure Russia stays in the war
Then the thought of a constituent assembly which would form a lasting government
2 Part: Petrograd Societ
Soviet = council of workers and soldiers deputies who represent the real force
behince the revolution
Most important of the soviets made up of moderate socialist – Marxists
DUAL POWER PART PETROGRAD
Vlademir IL’ich (Ulianov) Lenin HIS242H1 29 January 2013
- Peace, bread, land
Radical Social Democrats
- Marxism in a peasant country
APRIL CRISIS AND BREAKDOWN OF LAW AND ORDER
- Declaration of War Aims”
- “Miliukov Note” – sent a note to the other powers saying we want access to
Mediterranean. What he did know was the people that worked in that office
were socialist and released the note.
Peasant land seizures
Worker’s control – In factories, there was violence against managers with workers
trying to take control of the factories.
“Order No. 1” – Soldiers undermined officers. Essentially what it said is officers have
control in battle. Outside of that soldiers may have their own will.
Kerenski became the leading figurein the provincial government.
He ordered offensive in june, thinking this would start patriotism
Russian army turns back and there are huge protests of this offensive.
The “July Days” failed. The protest was that all power goes to the Societs.
Bolsheviks aren’t sure they want to seize power yet. They enforced these protests in
July but not entirely.
Korentadt Sailors – huge force behind them
July days failed because Bolsheviks and soldiers didn’t want to take power. The
prov. Govt. states Lenin was a traitor and a friend to the Germans. Bolsheviks are
General Lavr Kornilov – Conservative power
Kerenski made him a commander and chief of the army.
Agusust 1917 right-wing coup attempt
Bolsheviks is triumphant
PREPPING THE REVOLUTION
In October Bolsheviks comes back
- Leon (Lev) Trotskii
- In October 10-11 jhe holds a meting with the rest. He wants the meeting for
the communist party from all the states coming from congress would be
perfect for the revolution HIS242H1 29 January 2013
- Lenin (Still in hiding) says “Revolution now” because of the congress of the
- Provincial Gov’t talked about sending the Petrograd Garrison to the front and
replacing them as a force of law and order with other soldiers.