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HIS242H1 - The Russian Revolution and Civil War - 29-01-13.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Doris Bergen

HIS242H1 29 January 2013 The Russian Revolution and Civil War (1917-1921) February Revolution Crisis of “Dual Power” October Revolution Civil War and “War Communism” Victory and Retreat Prelude to February, 1917 Nicholas II: Was incompetent, went to the front but showed his incompetence and weakness Russia: Was a highly fractured country going into World War 1. There were major strikes in Russia that frizzled out after the war. February Revolution February 22-27 (Old Calendar) International Women’s Day (Feb 23) Protest 200,000 people in 1 state protesting this regime. Feb 26, members of the Petrogad gerison began to mutiny. This was the beginning on the end. March 1: Tsar wanted to leave the throne to his brother. His brother was afraid that his family would be in danger. The Tsar abdicates DUAL POWER, PART ONE PROVISIONAL GOVERNMENT Pavel Miliukov (Liberal) Alexander Kerenski (Moderate Socialist) – agreed to let out political dissidence, former lawyer Goal – Make sure Russia stays in the war Then the thought of a constituent assembly which would form a lasting government nd 2 Part: Petrograd Societ Soviet = council of workers and soldiers deputies who represent the real force behince the revolution Most important of the soviets made up of moderate socialist – Marxists DUAL POWER PART PETROGRAD (Text missing) BOLSHEVIKS Vlademir IL’ich (Ulianov) Lenin HIS242H1 29 January 2013 “April Theses” - Peace, bread, land Radical Social Democrats - Marxism in a peasant country APRIL CRISIS AND BREAKDOWN OF LAW AND ORDER April Crisis - Declaration of War Aims” - “Miliukov Note” – sent a note to the other powers saying we want access to Mediterranean. What he did know was the people that worked in that office were socialist and released the note. Peasant land seizures Worker’s control – In factories, there was violence against managers with workers trying to take control of the factories. “Order No. 1” – Soldiers undermined officers. Essentially what it said is officers have control in battle. Outside of that soldiers may have their own will. JULY DAYS Kerenski became the leading figurein the provincial government. He ordered offensive in june, thinking this would start patriotism Russian army turns back and there are huge protests of this offensive. The “July Days” failed. The protest was that all power goes to the Societs. Bolsheviks aren’t sure they want to seize power yet. They enforced these protests in July but not entirely. Korentadt Sailors – huge force behind them July days failed because Bolsheviks and soldiers didn’t want to take power. The prov. Govt. states Lenin was a traitor and a friend to the Germans. Bolsheviks are arrested. KORNILOV AFFAIR General Lavr Kornilov – Conservative power Kerenski made him a commander and chief of the army. Agusust 1917 right-wing coup attempt Bolsheviks is triumphant PREPPING THE REVOLUTION In October Bolsheviks comes back - Leon (Lev) Trotskii - In October 10-11 jhe holds a meting with the rest. He wants the meeting for the communist party from all the states coming from congress would be perfect for the revolution HIS242H1 29 January 2013 - Lenin (Still in hiding) says “Revolution now” because of the congress of the societs. - Provincial Gov’t talked about sending the Petrograd Garrison to the front and replacing them as a force of law and order with other soldiers. THE UPRISING Oct
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