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#21: The Breakup of Yugoslavia and Extreme Violence in the Balkans, 1991-2003 .pdf

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Doris Bergen

THE BREAKUP OF YUGOSLAVIA AND EXTREME VIOLENCE IN THE BALKANS, 1991-2003 INTRODUCTION •In the euphoria after the fall of the Wall, Yugoslavia is often left out of the discussion •1991 — Yugoslavia began to fall apart through a series of successions and wars W ITNESSES v=GLi7YuMu9n4 (trailer) •Not a nationalist movie — it shows the corrosive effect of violence C REATION OF NEW S TATES T HROUGH V IOLENCE •June 1991 — the first of the republics of what had been federated Yugoslavia, Slovenia, declared its independence •After a very short war the president of Yugoslavia ordered the Yugoslavian army to withdraw — allowed Slovenia to become independent without fighting for it •June 1991 — Croatia declared their independence from Yugoslavia •Unlike Slovenia, the Yugoslav Nationalist Army supported the Serb militias inside Croatia who fought against succession from the state 1991-1995 — The result was bitter fighting between the two • •Yugoslavia, particularly certain portions, were very mixed regions — populations had intermingled and intermarried •Under Tito there had been attempts to mix the population •People and regions could not be neatly divided •Once the war began in Croatian territory from both sides there were efforts to clean the territories by removing populations deemed unsuitable and bringing in those considered proper — local Serb militias tried to purge Croats from the territories as they took control of them and vice versa •This process of ethnic cleansing created a kind of homogenization in regions where it had not existed •The process involved a combination of killing, expulsion, destruction of property, and use of extreme violence an terror to try to make those people who weren’t killed terrified to ever enter those regions again • Rape and dismemberment were very important tools used to terrorize/ humiliate people — they aided in efforts to redraw ethnic maps THE BREAKUP OF YUGOSLAVIA AND EXTREME VIOLENCE IN THE BALKANS, 1991-2003 • The series of wars involved high rates of killing, but much higher rates of displacement — 100,000s of people fled from their home trying to find some place of safety • September 1991 — Macedonia declared independence • It was not the site of a war as a had taken place in Croatia • January 1992 — backed by Yugoslav president Slobodan Milošević and led by Radovan Karadžić, Bosnian-Serbs in Bosnia-Herzegovina setup their own breakaway Serb republic within Bosnia-Herzegovina (Republika Srpska) — trying to resist independence of that region • Resulted in war with Bosnia-Herzegovina • The former enemies Yugoslavia (Milosevic) and Croatia (Franjo Tudjman) were able to find a common ground of cooperation and to divide Bosnia-Herzegovina between them • The war that began in Bosnia-Herze
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