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HIS242H1 (160)

Post-War Crisis Russian Civil War and Revolution in Germany following WW1

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University of Toronto St. George
Jennifer Jenkins

Post War Crisis- trans European (all Europe, all society) - End of WW1 brings desire for democracy and “self determination” - Mazerick (at independence hall in Philly) proclaims Czech independence. Czechs kept this democracy until 1938, success story of the PPC) - League of Nations- new framework for international relations badly needed (July Crisis). Wilsonian plans are a failure in the long run. - New national states emerge in poor circumstances (socio-political chaos). Little wars begin, revolution, civil war, economic collapse, disease (Spanish Flu kills 20-40 million), famine - Military and political movements conflicted. Governing crises from Germany eastward - Conflicts brought on by ethnic nationalism, communism, democracy - Russian Civil War- 1918-20- Bolsheviks have numerous enemies (Monarchists, aristocracy, Middle Class, Military officers, Church, Moderate socialists, Russian nationalists) - Private property is abolished, churches are destroyed and bourgeoisie destroyed - Versailles nullifies German gains at Brest-Litovsk - Ukraine- German backed Skoropadsky succeeds in a coup, Kiev becomes the centre of anti-Bolshevism. - Nov 1917- Finland becomes independent of Russia (also has a Red vs White civil war) - Azerbaijian, Armenia secede. Cossacks resist Bolsheviks - Spring 1918- Bolsheviks pushed back by Tsarist generals (aided by Allies, $, troops, ammo) - 180,000 foreigners in Russia (Czechs numerous and effective- sieze Trans-Siberian Railway - Romanov family is burned by Bolsheviks and they fight outwards after losing serious t
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