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German and Italian Revolutions (Lect6) Germany's Transition to a Republic, elections in Germany. Fascism overview and the roots of Fascism in Italy (Fiume)

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Jennifer Jenkins

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German and Italian Revolutions Germany - After Kiel workers and soldiers councils are prevalent around north and central Germany - Nov 9, 1919- Kaiser Wilhelm II abdicates and flees to the Netherlands. Republic declared twice; by the reform socialists in the Reichstag and the radical socialists in the Kaiser’s Palace (these groups fight during the revolution) - The German labour movement is the largest in Europe and is now divided between parties - During the 1920s the SDP (Socialists) fight the KPD (Communists) in the streets of Berlin st - Ebart becomes the new Chancellor of Germany, 1 president of Weimar Republic. Institutes a progressive constitution and liberal government - KPD is founded when the Sparticists break from the USPD (Independent Socialists) - The fight is on the Left but Ebart brings in the Freikorps against the Sparticists (bad move). “Save Germany from Communists” - Operations Council (Freikorps group) murder the head of the KPD (Luxembourg and Lippenburg *spoke out against war in 1914*- abducted, held, tortured, murdered and thrown into the Berlin river) - Election- very high turnout, Liberal Democratic Parties (Reform Socialists, Centre, German Democrats) win a 76% majority and form the Weimar coalition (Berlin is unsafe) - Revolution ends with the Freikorps crushing the Soviet Republic at Munich - Germany satisfies all allied demands but the punitive peace is not lessened; Alsace Loraine to FRA, Silesia and part of Prussia to POL, Danzig becomes an international city (AREAS OF INDUSTRY) - Germany loses territory and military surperiority (army capped at 100,000 men, no navy, demilitarized Rhineland, large indemnity)  devastating to all Germans,
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