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History - March 29.docx

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Jennifer Jenkins

- Accidental documentary of the Prague Spring o Working on another film as the Soviet invasion occurs; catch it all on film as the invasion rolls in - Interesting images of the counterculture in Prague in the film; segue into the counterculture of the West 1968 WEST: Political protest, counterculture, and the new social movements - Movement of global rebellion erupts around the world, driven by students - From San Francisco to Berlin, from Paris to London, to New York City, students occupied university buildings, protested by thousands, even brought the French government of Francis de Gaulle to its knees. - P: Daniel Cohn-Bendit (May 1968), Sorbonne (wrote one of our readings); a force to be reckoned with in 1968. - Political revolt, but in a different sense - Generational shift very clear - Contemporaries like to say this was a revolution, especially in France, drawing comparisons to classic revolutions (Hungary, St Petersburg, etc.), but this was different. Very sharply political, but much broader, much less diffuse, much less organized o Didn’t have a political centre, didn’t really attack the state o Much more decentralized, and bigger; different kinds of dynamics o Very widespread; widespread movement of revolt - Paris May succeeds before it fails - For many people in this generation, the revolution continues. o They were after a revolution of consciousness and everyday life - Ecological movements, feminist movements, gay pride movements, etc. o New social movements of the 1970s o 1968 lives on in these - 1968 was a revolt against many things o Traditional politics o Traditional established political parties o Against militarism o Against materialism (of the past and 1950s) o Really against the world of their parents in many ways o Against the oppression of the western worlds, rigid consumerism and materialism - 1968, a new generation challenged the economical and political status quo o True in both east and west o In communist countries, they rebelled against communism, in capitalist countries, they rebelled against capitalism - Against apathy, call for more authentic democracy - First factor, against decolonization and the wars that grew out of it (French wars in Indochina and Algeria) o American war in Vietnam a symbol for this rebellion o Global anti-war movement - 1961, huge demonstration against the Algerian War in Paris. Violent police reaction. This carried the seeds of 1968. o Overreaction of the police against these demonstrators radicalised demonstrations across the boards - Massive student demonstration 2 June 1969, West Berlin o Against the Shah of Iran o The Shah was seen as an American puppet o At this demonstration, an unarmed student was shot and killed by police o Permanently and deeply radicalized the demonstrations in West Germany o Comparisons to the Nazis  That the West German state and police are Fascists nd o The Movement of the 2 of June - Second factor, example of the civil rights movement in the United States o Nonviolent opposition  Coming from Gandhi through these protestors  Tactic of the sit-in and mass demonstrations - Third factor, sharp generational divide between these students and their parents o About the history of WWII  About the silence about the crimes of this war  About how the past should be confronted and dealt with (particularly strong in Germany) - Fourth, technology o The television o Events around the world could be broadcast and viewed simultaneously o Connects students across the world o This new technology has an incredible power, exhilarating
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