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History - March 15.docx

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Jennifer Jenkins

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CRACKS IN THE SOVIET BLOC - No political opposition exists against communist parties in Stalinized countries - No freedom of press, speech, etc. - No policing except for very large force of secret police - National cultures no longer allowed to exist - Characterizations of Stalinization o Replication of Soviet style of government (one party state, total control and power, infiltration of all areas of life by party). Enforced imitation of Soviet political administration and cultural institutions o Absolute obedience to Soviet directives (disobedience, discussion not allowed) o Administrative supervision of other countries by Soviet Russian personnel from Moscow (East Germany example of extreme supervision. For every 65 people, one worked for the secret police) o Bureaucratic arbitrariness (parties claimed to be acting rationally, but do everything but. Especially during purges) o Police terror, not just surveillance, ran amok o Poverty, economic deprivation. Economic resources being redirected into industrialization rather than consumer needs o Colonial-like trade with the Soviet Union o Isolation from non-communist world. Could not travel. Berlin wall in 1961, but before this, only opening in the Iron Curtain o Synthetic Russification, Russomania. Dissemination of Russian language and culture. o A mindless cult of Stalin adulation: later criticized as the “cult of personality” o Widespread social anomie, intellectual stagnation, and ideological sterility - Yugoslavia, the one that got away - Tito o Only postwar communist leader who had the ability to stand up against Stalin and survive the experience o Still a rigid communist o Had led his own communist revolution. Which is why he felt that he should not have to take orders from Russia. Should be partners, rather than Yugoslavia be a servant of Russia o Led partisan army against Nazi occupation of Yugoslavia - In Croatian concentration camp were Serbs, Roma, Jews, Croats political opponents, and others - War against Croatian fascist state and Nazi occupiers very bloody, very vicious - About a million members of the partisan army - Tito emerges at end of the war as absolute leader of very large communist party o Had been militarily victorious o Only party talking about a multiethnic Yugoslavia (Tito himself a Croat) - 1942 -> Declares his partisans as the anti-fascist council of liberation - 1943 -> Declare selves head of Yugoslavian government - Seen by Stalin as a competitor who needs to be removed - Djilas (Conversations with Stalin) a minister in Tito’s new communist government o Born in Montenegro o Became communist as a student in Belgrade o Spent a lot of time in jail for political activities - Communism seen as a very real alternative to authoritarian government of the 1930s - Very generational thing - Djilas saw communism as a way to fight Nazism - Communism very popular force in this way at the end of the war - Djilas -> What happens to this idea of communism when it runs against Soviet communism - Soviet Union, “the world centre of revolution”. Later views it with much more doubt. - How could there b
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