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History - March 8.docx

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Jennifer Jenkins

THE MARSHALL PLAN AND THE DIVISION OF EUROPE (1945-1948) I. The Defeat of Nazi Germany Potsdam Conference, 1945 Military Occupation The Four Zones and the Allied Control Council II. The DP Camps A Europe of Refugees The work of UNRRA Jewish Emigration to Palestine III. Military Occupation Policies in Germany Demilitarization Democratization Denazification The International Military Tribunal (IMT) at Nuremberg, 1945-1946 IV. The Anti-Fascist Alliance and its Discontents Greek Civil War Tensions between US/Great Britain and the Soviet Union V. The Start of the Cold War The Truman Doctrine, 1947 The theory of containment (George Kennan) The Marshall Plan, 1947 US Secretary of State George Marshall's commencement speech at Harvard University, June, 1947 - WWII, deadliest armed conflict known to mankind - Photo: Red Army entering Berlin (April 1945) - Soviet Union -> 27 million died in the conflict, approximately 10% of population - Poland -> 6 million Poles dead; 300 000 soldiers, but 5.8 million civilians (half of which were Polish Jews) (15% of entire population) - Yugoslavia -> approximately 1.5 million dead; about 1 million civilians - 70 million combatants fought in WWII, 17 million of these combatants were killed o 1:22 from Soviet Union o 1:25 from Germany o 1:50 from Britain o 1:500 from America - April 30, 1945 -> Hitler commits suicide in his bunker, his troops surrender a week later - Combined strength of armies of the Soviet Union and America had won the war o It would be these two great powers that would face off following the war o Worked together for Nazi Germany’s defeat, but had very little in common o This alliance began to fall apart once the war ended, spinning out into many wars - Cold War what gave post-war Europe its structure o Possibly the entire world - Begins in 1947, lasts until 1991 o Beginning sees division of Germany into East and West - The Big Three (now Stalin, Attlee, Truman) met in Potsdam, Germany. The war in Europe had ended, but still continued elsewhere. Weeks before Hiroshima and Nagasaki. - These atomic bombs end the war - The four Ds for Germany: Disarmed, demilitarized, de-Nazified, democratized. - Germany as a state does not exist right now. Will stay a military occupation zone until 1949. - Country divided into four, capital (Berlin) divided into four (French, British, American, Soviet) - Big question: How do you de-Nazify? US and Soviet Union disagreed on this. - IMT: International Military Tribunal (At the Nuremberg Trials) - US and Soviet Union still in alliance during IMT - Democratizing: restoring local government, freedom of speech and religion, encourage democratic ideals, etc. General principles set out at Potsdam Conference. Interpreted much more liberally in West than East Germany. - In each military occupied zone, policies interpreted differently by each power - ACC: Allied Control Council o Leaders of which were France, Britain, America, and the Soviet Union - France brought into all of this as an equal power at Churchill’s initial request. - 24 DP camps in Germany, 9 in
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