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2nd half Printing & Renaissance Art

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University of Toronto St. George
Nicholas Terpstra

Early Modern Europe Tuesday Oct 12 Cont from last Week Printing - Cultural Consequences Notion of scholarship, or comparative scholarship. Vernacular languages, which were not developed with literatures and grammars before print, begins to have that structure. The more books, the larger the audience grows, which leads to growth of education. Also leads to a higher experience of cultural involvement. Ideas are now spread socially and culturally, as a broader range of people (i.e. middle class) has access to printed material. This in turn can be considered a leading cause of the Reformation. This also leads to the question of what is it to have authority, before illiteracy did not effect ones hold on power, however after printing to be illiterate is to be essentially without cultural authority. Transition from an oral to a literate culture. With the spreading of ideas, there is the development of organized censorship. Early on efforts are made at censorship of books, and printing. One of the first examples is Henry XIII of England, who is attempting to control religious dissent. Even in some cases there is an attempt to completely cull the use and existence of presses. Also a great deal of effort from the Catholic church to control religious dissent, including their own publishing of the index (1542) a list of published work that cannot be sold or read by any Catholic (which continues into the 1960s) Renaissance Art: Painting, Sculpture, Architecture Medieval artwork was made with no attempt at creating or depicting an actual space, the point was to illustrate for example saints, with the point being that they are watching you. Comes in part from Byzantine (Greek) motifs. Space was not meant to be realistic, but heavenly We see these illustrated in such medieval backgrounds as Duccios Maesta & St. Marco mosaics in Venice
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