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Lecture 4

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University of Toronto St. George

HIS244H1: Lecture 4 Monday, May 28 /2012 Europe and the Outer World: Colonial Empires and the Second Age of Discoveries This is the first half of the social and economic change part of the course Change through an eye for consumerism, and not just production The first age of great discovery started in the late 15 cent., at the time their were some imported technological innovations, and some financial support Explorer: Columbus (from Genoa, Italy) o It is revealing, they find themselves as better navigators o Gets patronage from Queen of Spain to look for a passage to Asia o The goal is to circumvent the Ottoman territory (come through the center of Asia, and then go through the Ottoman area) o Get the goods from those areas (ex. Spices, mostly pepper) and bring them back to Europe o Discovers America Colonial powers are at first really interested in finding a better way to Asia o Transport during this time is very difficult (by land) o Transport by sea is easier to transport bulk goods, but subjected to seasonal variations and climate After America is discovered, the Portuguese launch their own discovery and go around Africa to India this is the first circum navigation o In 1511 following more inspirations of southern Asian, the Portuguese conquer Malacca it has a strait in Indonesia, and allows them to control access to China o Gives them great control over the trade of spices and pepper Soon after the Spanish/Portuguese exploration, the other European states start to follow (England/France) o They go to Africa, Asia and the new World 3 motivates behind those first colonial empires: o Economic goals: Find resources/trade o Religion: Hoping to find people/populations to convert to their creed o Geopolitical (*important to our period): Want land because you want more power, helps to increase position in Europe if you have great colonial possessions 2 types of settlement: o Eastern Colonial Empires: Series of 4-5 traditions posts along Africa, or south-eastern Asian coasts; this is not a settlement type of colonial empire, and there is very limited European presence. They use these posts to dock ships, and then proceed to the next point, and back. o Western Colonial Empires: in the Americas, very different their settlement early on is much more important, this also comes from the idea that the new world is empty in the eyes of Europeans, and the indigenous people arent seen as upper occupants of the land (they are not advanced civilizations in the eyes of the Europeans), they are not exploiting the resources as well as can be done late 18 century this will change, Europeans have very little doubt about their own superiority Spain establishes a significant colonial empire in Central and Southern America o Spain also takes a hold of numerous Turkian islands (Cuba, Saint Dominica Cortes conquers the Aztec Empire, which gives them control over Mexico, except for the peninsula, Pizarro conquers the Inca Empire (Peru) gives them the coast of South America Treaty of Tordesillas (1494) The Portuguese establish their first settlement in Brazil in 1532 Early settlements: the world was divided into two spheres, west of line given to Spain, east was given to Portugal English/French establishthheir first permanent settlement in North America at the beginning of the 17 century (ex. Virginia 1607) Dutch established New Amsterdam in 1625 (present day New York) What Were Colonial Empires Like in 1628? At the beginning of our period, Spain had the largest territorial empire o Control over Mexico (except for the peninsula), Control over West coast of South America (part of Columbia, Ecuador, and modern day Peru) Portugal had a very extensive network of trading on the coasts, more limited territorial expansion, but much more extended in terms of territory covered within the network of trade o Also had a limited settlement on the Brazilian coast th o Brazil is of limited interest to Portugal until later in the 18 century when a lot of gold in Brazil is discovered, suddenly becomes more important The Dutch are the emerging power o They have control over Asian trade, which is growing fast o 1641 (example) they conquer Malacca from Portuguese, so they have control over the Indonesian strait In terms of the English colonies, the settlement is very limited to the coast in North America, there is no great settlement in the interior France penetrated North America much deeper o Very sparsely populatedo New France is mostly based on the fur trade, the colonies establish a number of trading posts to meet with the indigenous people to carry on the fur trade around the great lakes and in the wild valley across the US o Small trading posts because the land is not occupied Other minor European players: Sweden, Denmark (Greenland), Russia (Alaska) In 1648: Clearly cannot talk about European world domination YET, but the Europeans are the only ones with a foot on all four continents, and have goods and people moving around all of the continents Over the next century, the colonial empires are extended, and European rivalries are also extended to the overseas concessions European states adopt economic policies where colonial possessions come to play an integral part o Mercantilism: form of a trade, force monopolies and only trade with yourselves, fixed (partially): increase exports, reduce imports protect your domestic industries, reaping the colonies of their resources and shipping them back to mother country o Economic policy that aims to ensure that the balance of trade is positive, this comes from the belief that there is a finite amount of silver and gold (precious metals available) to make sure that you dont lose silver and gold, the mother country will enforce tight trade relations with its c
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