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Lecture 5

HIS244H1 - Lecture 5.docx

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University of Toronto St. George

HIS244H1: Lecture 5 Wednesday, May 30 /2012 Social and Economic Change Pt. 2: The Emergence of a Market Economy and of a Consumer Society Map of the World 1630s arths that still arent really understood o Explorers of the 18 century are looking to discover the Great southern unknown land o South seas really unknown to Europeans at the time, limited understanding at the time and no one goes further than Japan at the beginning of the period 1606: Explorers first saw part of Australia, but they did not put it on the map th until 18 century o Still remains a lot of unknown o Numerous expeditions launched in second half of 18 century usually called the 2 age of discoveries nd 2 Age of Discoveries o Commercial profit, religious conversions, and political conquest are still all primary motivators o Rise of a powerful new motive that comes from scientific and anthropological curiosity of the enlightenment quest for knowledge, explorers are now also philosophers and scientists o Classify, systemize and understand the natural world to help their prestige o Knowledge can be power helps assert power, and can give society advantages over others French are first to launch wide-scale expedition th (Bougainville) o Louis 15 sponsors Description of a Voyage around the World (1776-1779) clear motivations o Knowledge is power and can help assert superiority o His accounts discuss the benefits about civilization, some Europeans were skeptical about the superiority of their own culture Skeptical Rousseau developed his ideas in two major texts Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts (1750) and Discourse on the Origins of Inequality (1765) o Injustice is promoted over justice, and falsehood over truth o Best society is one of moral savages o Argues that civilization had created an artificial set of values and assumptions that drove humans to promote injustice over justice, and falsehood over truth o Suggested that the best and most moral society is one of noble savages, who were not under the restraints of civilization o Question the virtues of civilization o Popularizes the idea of noble savage positive view of primitive societies Bougainville and Tahiti: island paradise, inhabitants confirmed to Rousseaus ideal of a moral man in his natural state, tropical climate, fertile soil, seemingly kind and gentle people, who possessed some sort of social hierarchal (monarchial govt, nobility, organized religion (pagan)) Observed in Tahiti: o No acute inequalities in wealth, few barriers between people of different social backgrounds o Brings a Tahitian man back home learned more about Tahitian society by learning the language o Complex hierarchy priesthood had extensive powers over people - perfect liberty and equality did not exist in the state of nature, not anymore then it did in Europe o Confirmed the idea that Europeans had that south seas are a paradise on earth, utopian idea would be integrated in later Enlightenment Criticism on contemporary society o Idea that the south seas were a paradise on earth, garden of Eden - free from human sin (utopian vision) o ENGLISH VOYAGES James Cook voyages o First two voyages were sponsored by the British Royal Society o Had a technical crew and carried scientists, artists, botanists who would be able to write detailed accounts about the societies and the floral that they encountered o Given enlightened instructions by President of the Royal Society - not only to return with surveys/drawings, he was advised not to take an aggressive position in his relations with the foreign culture and to not shoot first VOYAGE 1: 1768-1771 Tahiti, Australia and New Zealand In his first voyage Cook went to Australia, New Zealand and Tahiti. He stayed for 4 months in Tahiti with the deliberant intention of studying society. He studied killing of unwanted children, war practices, social structure and hierarchy. Cook was very influenced by the racialist thinking of the day, and his work was based on the assumption that all people developed from a common root stock (this is called MONOGENISIS which argues that there is only one source of human civilization). Cook looked for similarities between Tahiti and England (in religion, politics and organization), but most of what he found was superficial. Cook accepted that Tahitians had a civilization, but that it was very different one than Europe. When Cook got to New Zealand it was a great shock. He had a lot of trouble dealing with the features of the culture. Elements such as cannibalism was not favored becauseit presented the idea that Europeans in the past had also practiced cannibalism (by following the theory of monogenesis). Cook did admire, however, the valorization of the warriors, and the high value placed on courage and honesty. He found the natives to be more outspoken and less artificial than Europeans. After New Zealand, Cook traveled to Australia where he thought that society presented an unimpressive picture. Aboriginal people were small, dark-skinned, naked and filthy. Despite these observations, Cook tried to not judge by European standards and explained the culture using features of the civilization. For Example: their climate allowed them to live without clothes (thats why they were naked), no riches demonstrated that they were selfless and that their moral standard was high, no interest in European goods meant that their values and standards were different from Europeans and this must be respected. VOYAGE #2: 1772-1775 Antarctica, resupply back in Tahiti VOYAGE #3: 1776-1779 - Hawaii In his third voyage, Cook was looking for a land that could be inhabited, but is killed in 1779 due to a cultural misunderstanding. Hawaii first
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