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Lecture 6

HIS244H1 - Lecture 6.rtf

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Department
History
Course
HIS244H1
Professor
Church
Semester
Fall

Description
HIS244H1: Lecture 6 – Rise of the Modern State Monday, June 4th, 2012 Rise of the Modern State, Part 1: The Constitutional States • States with real constitutions th • Overall in the 18 century, we see an expansion of the state – the rise of a modern state o Become more centralized o Desire from rulers to extend their influence o Development in the professional bureaucracy to help administer a more centralized state o Pursuing more ambitious foreign policies, which means their financial needs increase (goal becomes an increase of subsidies, creating a fiscal military state) à fiscal military state (money goes towards the army, the state expands) o Rulers attempt to monopolize soveriegnty within the state – they really want to present themselves as the sole legitimate force and the sole lesgislator within their country, and they don’t accept any competition from the elites or nobility o Need to limit the independence of the nobles (no more private noble armies) – elite help to extend this type of state o Known as the age of absolutism, but not everywhere (i.e. The Stewarts failed as an absolutist rule) • A number of constitutional states: England, Dutch Republic, Poland ENGLAND & THE ENGLISH CIVIL WAR • Both a political conflict and a religious conflict between Charles I and Parliament • Conflict between Parliamentary rights vs. Stewards Absolutists Tendencies • Parliament – longing for a good queen (Queen Elizabeth’s former reign), one who had atleast given the impression that she was listening • Religious conflict: religious divisions helped accentuate and define the crisis, ex. Puritans, Calvinists and Anglicans in conflict, especially when considering how many of each are represented in Parliament o Calvanists & Pre-destination: fate set before you were born, Catholics don’t believe in this for example o Puritans emphasize personal work over ecclesial hierarchy, Puritans are opposed to role of Bishops in Church of England, they want to de-emphasize the sacraments, keep their church services, and they critisize the elaborate Anglican rituals of the Church of England as being too close to Catholicism o The Church of England - Anglican Church - is a Protestant church, however Anglican heiarchy is very similiar to the Catholic church o Hostile to elements of the Church of England as being too close to Catholicism (stained glass windows for example) o Puritans were only about the 3rd of the gentry, 10% of the population, very influential and well-represented in Parliament o Charles I converts to Arminianism (a religion closer to Catholicism), emphasizes royal authority o Authority and centrality of the role of bishops • 1630s Charles I appoints William Laud, Archbishop of Canterbury o Arminian o Appointment leads many Puritans to fear for the future of the Church of England, thinks that eventually they will return to Catholicism as a safe religion • Fiscal policies problematic o Charles I put levies on land owners without Parliament's consent o Typically new taxation can’t be introduced without passing it through parliament o Struggle of power between Parliament and Charles I o Wanted to raise taxes to finance his policies, but parliament refused to give their consent unless he recognized their political rights, such as necessary approval to raise taxes, and condemnation of arbitrary arrests (don’t want king to arrest you arbitrarily just because your opposed) • In the 1630s, Charles I doesn’t agree with Parliament and tries to rule without them o By the 1640s the pressing financial needs of the English crown forced him to reconvene Parliament o First troubles begin in Scotland, tries to impose the book of common prayers where the Presbyterian Church is, did not impress the Scots – he is interfering with their affairs o Leaders of the Presbyterian church signed a covenant where they swore to protect their church against the attacks of Charles I – OPEN conflict between Scotland and Charles I o 1640 - Re-convened parliament in an attempt to fix financial needs of crown, once they meet Parliament presents their list of greviances to Charles I o Opens up a new stage of the crisis – political crisis is now a constitutional crisis – how the nation will be governed • Parliament is mostly led by Puritans, they refuse the King's claims, claim to be upholding the Magna Carta (i.e. raising new taxes without parliament's approval is illegal) o Can’t go against the counsel of his Parliament o King can’t raise new taxes without consent of Parliament o Two parties emerging – those who support Parliament (known as the Country) and those who supported virtually unlimited monarchial power (Court) • Title nobles 1200 people generally support king, gentry on the opposite and supporting parliament • 1640: Charles calls on Catholic regiments to support English army, this raises suspicions about why Catholics were brought in • 1642: CIVIL WAR o Roundheads (parliament army) vs. Cavaliers (Charles' Army) o Roundheads ally with revolting Scots – thinking they would capitlize on that to curb Charles’ absolutist tendencies o Few battles on English soil, but a lot of disruptions – general hardship, plundering, the conflict affects at least 10% of population involved in this war o War of words – propoganda plays a significant role o 22,000 literatures published by both sides (propaganda) between 1640-1660 o Royalists chances of winning the war are seriously damaged when Oliver Cromwell establishes the New Model Army in 1645 à army where strict discipline is enforced, regular wages paid, well-supplied, does not plunder (makes it popular with locals), Parliament gets a decisive advantage in the war • There are divisions in parliament o Presbytarians (Calvanists) supporting Scottish rebellion: want a national Calvanist church, much more willing to compromise with the King o Independents: more radical, less willing to compromise, Cromwell’s new army aligns with Independents • 1648: New Army surrounds parliament, and purges it of the moderates o Dominated by the Independents now, they set up their own court • 1648-1649 – Charles I brought to court to be tried for Treason o He does not acknowledge their authority, only God’s authority o Jan 30, 1649 he is executed o Charles I ended up becoming a martyr for English royalty o With his execution the king created an image of a martyr for the cause (won the propoganda war) o Eikon Basilike- "The Royal Portrait" 1649: an "autobiography" of Charles makes him a Christian martyr o Immediate aftermath of Charles I death the monarchy is temporarily abolished, the House of Lords abolished and instead a Commonwealth is instated with Cromwell as the leader CROMWELL’S LEADERSHIP • 1649: Cromwell puts down the Irish insurrection • Cromwell is responsible f
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