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Lecture 11

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th HIS244H1: Lecture #11 Wednesday, June 20 /2012 The Terror  When we left off…Louis the 16 has just be executed  Spring 1793: Frances military campaign is not going very well o Heightened sense of vulnerability on the part of the French Republic o Military commanders change sides – no longer supports Republic – however his crews refuse to follow him  1793: insurrections o Loyalty to the Catholic church and monarchy were particularly strong o Rebel against revolution, and lead a military counter-revolution  August 1793: military conscription decreed o Creates widespread discontent o Republic feels threatened both from the outside and inside (people starting to rebel and try to put down the revolution from within) o Divisions all start to appear – Girondists (de-centralization of the state, economic freedom, mostly from Bordeux, think that economic freedom will be better for their own business) vs. Mountains (greater state control, against autonomy for the provinces) – Jacobins (those not with them were automatically against them, if your against the general will your against the common good)  Under the pressure of the Sansculottes the Jacobins order the arrests of Girodists (purge of them in June) o That gives control over the assembly to the Jacobins o Raises more oppositions in the provinces (Federalists revolt) o Considered the first acts of the Terror o In the Summer – Committee of Public Safety produces laws permitting arrests, immediate trial of armed insurgents o Terror characterized by this siege mentally – siege domestic enemies o Terror is necessary according to Robespierre o 1793 – for the new republic – new constitution adopted never really enacted and quickly suspended  Establish idea of a republic of virtue (Robespierre) o Moral political regime  Parisian masses gave the Terror lots of support o Robespierre is weary about the influence of the masses o Thinks it will transition to a more democratic society o Has to keep them satisfied to prevent them from revolting  Revolutionary tribunal put in place to judge the suspected enemies of the Republic o Becomes very arbitrary and does not follow the rule of law o No fair trial for the accused o Political consideration outweighed decisions of law o Terrorists in Paris relied on clubs to purge – networks they use when they send representatives on missions to the French provinces (purge and eliminate men and women who opposed the will of the Republic) o In the end the Terror was a fairly bloody episode 30,000-40,000 died under a year o Famous means of execution guillotine, drowning, shooting o Victims were mostly ordinary people thought to be not specifically patriotic, 15% come from nobility and clergy (very disproportionate) o 300,000 people arrested over those monthes, some had trials and were released, while others were still in prison even when the Terror came to an end  Republic of virtue brought about drastic social changes in France o Women’s participation is cut down in the public sphere, it’s considered corrupt o Ban women from attending the sessions of the assembly, executed a number of women (Mme. Roland, Olympe de Gouges, Mme. Du Barry, Marie Antoinette), disassembled women’s political clubs o IRONIC: Revolutionaries chose a female figure to represent the French Republic (MARIANNE)  Virtuous embodiment of the republic  Visible change from masculine iconography associated with the monarchy  Abstract principles  Septor replaced by the faces – associated with the roman republic, strength, and unity, the nation – everyone coming together which forms the sovereignty  Symbols of the roman republic o Committee to devise a system of – standardized system all over France (metric system) o Radical revolutionaries also began a campaign of dechristianization, close churches and remove some Christian symbols from public spaces, some even tried to form a cult of reason instead of Catholic Church  results in a failure – people who supported the revolution were not willing to renounce their faith Jean-Paul Marat  Started publishing his journal “L’Ami du people” – friend of the people  very aggressive in his publication – denouncing people he thought were enemies of the revolution, advocated for the physical elimination for the enemies of the revolution – 1792 marat elected to the convention when the republic was established, first joins the Mountain, but he’s too intense for them  People listen to what he has to say – great influence over Jacobins at the time  Charlotte Corday, young noble women, 1793 went to Paris thinking that she was the new Joan of Arc and should deliver France from Jacobin Radicalism, condemn, introduced into Marat’s apartment – stabs him in his bathtub  IMAGE important for who Murat is, but also the impact and the place it has in the revolutionary culture  Martyr of liberty – someone who died because of his political convictions – painted by David (Jacques-Louis) – painted the T
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