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HIS244H1 - Tutorial 2.docx

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University of Toronto St. George

HIS244H1: Tutorial #2 Theme: European Perceptions of Trade and Development Colbert:  They need more ships because of reliance on Dutch, but also need to increase manufacturing so they don’t have to rely on imports so much, and they can keep money in the country  Stress the importance of keeping money in France  If Dutch have certain amount of trade, French have to do something to get it away from them  Trade opens up a lot of jobs (navigation of the seaports) – invigorating the economy  Principle objective: state power and prosperity – good for them and good for us  If you don’t do it…it won’t happen  Mercantilism is so focused on the government/crown and it’s role in promoting trade, if they don’t support and develop it, the economy will be stagnant (CENTRAL POINT TO MERCANTILISM)  Various ways to do that: promoting industry, go to war, erecting tariff barriers Smith:  Ideas of development – discusses progression of different stages of commerce  Natural progression, eventually every society will become a commerce society (Trade within, then outside the nation)  Comments on the fact that many other nations might be at different stages than the English  Development doesn’t happen because the crown says so, Smith says it’ll happen as long as we don’t interfere with it – it’s a natural process – this is how economics functions Theme: European Attitudes Towards Ethnicities and Races  Hume/Kant both have a negative opinion of black people  They see black people as inferior to white people  They support this argument by using a record of achievement – they haven’t done it, therefore they can’t do it  Comment on why certain races aren’t able to progress Immanuel Kant:  Compares various cultures (is very culturally specific), but his article shows that Europeans still think they are more superior than others  Indian/Chinese culture specifically referenced – Europeans already had a relationship with these cultures, and knew a bit about them, and could see that they were developed  Kant’s piece shows a hierarchal representation of the different races  He has backward reasoning, it’s not what is being said rather it is who is saying it  Twists and justifies this type of reasoning  Removes slavery from the equation – Kant/Hume didn’t understand how slavery might impact the person  Kant is reasoning by analogy i.e. if I can find something in this culture that looks like Europe to me – that is the one thing that can elevate it Q: Did all Europeans see things this way? No. Diederot:  Q: Who do you think you are to come and take over other people and abuse their hospitality and good will?  Article focused on the Tahitians  Humanistic/moral approach to the topic  Appealing writer  Religious undertone – relates back to God, puts forth a Christian message  Does not believe in the way religion functions in France, not entirely religious, but believes in God  Different view on sexuality, feels like European morality is very limiting, and twisted and distorted people eventually making them ill  Europeans are shocked
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