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HIS244H1 - Tutorial 4.docx

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Tutorial #4: Wednesday, June 13/2012 Francis Bacon: drawing a conclusion from two or more premises  Inductive reasoning: dependent on observation, we reason because we see repetitive instances – we’ve seen it again and again (no counter examples)  Deductive reasoning: more dependent on Greek systems of logic – the idea that new knowledge is created by coming old theories/logic together o The two continue to co-exist, even today, and in some way we still rely on deductive knowledge o Deductive reasoning without inductive reasoning has little force o Bacon not a fan of deductive reasoning because he believes we shouldn’t rely on ideas of the past o Bigger fan of inductive reasoning because he feels it will lead to real explanation of the topic o Deductive reasoning is better for making everybody believe/convinced that something is true o Did very little observations on his own Isaac Newton:  Laws of physics  Universality of physical laws – if it applies in a certain way here, it also applies that way all over (the same everywhere in the universe)  Great implications for religion o Belief that physical laws on earth didn’t really apply to the heavens o Takes the supremacy away from the earth o Threat to Catholic church, they’ve set themselves up to be a great spiritual ownership who claims everybody on the face of the earth no matter where they are o The earth is not the sum total of the universe – its one little planet in the vast cosmos o How can it really be exercising authority of all these people?  Concept of Universal law of nature and physics: o What does it imply about the participation of God in the universe? o God doesn’t need to intervene in day-to-day lives – he has simply created earth and left it o No active everyday interference o Natural laws would then govern the earth o God set the parameters and would not change the parameters after o Big change for people at the time Dr. John Wallis:
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