Thurs. Sept. 15, 2011
Lecture One: I have lived here since the world began
Peoples and Places to 1500
• Aboriginal = Inuit + Indian + Metis (Indigenous histories)
- they are recognized now in Canadian law
• Indian (first nations): status/non - status --> don’t have status (1876 under the law)
Inuit (they are not Indian) = they are part of the fair North and Boreal Forest of Canadian, they
do not have Indian Status
• Metis is a blend of new comers and Indigenous. They have some rights under the charter.
- Indigenous = belonging to or coming from a place. Developed in from a place.
• Languages = developing diversities of languages and cultures. 12 known language families in
Canada. 53 languages then there are hundreds of dialect. Some of the Native languages have
been extinct/ going to be. These languages do not adopt other words like we do in English, they
come up with new words.
• Cultures: -->technologies
- Rethinking “stone age” technologies
- Local adaptations and specialization
- All of the things they have made ie. parkas, houses etc..
- More than hundreds of different types of plants that came from theAmericas ie. corn
-->Subsistence Management Strategies
- Managing the land that they live on. Not just hunting and gathering but managing the animals
they have and managing the crops.
- Northwest regions of art would have styles of animals, where as the Great lakes region made
art into shoes and other use able objects.
--> Political Power & Decision Making
- from anagaron to heirachitcal
- The chiefs would use there power to show the people that they sway people that they will take
care of them and share the wealth and make them do things. This was done on the Northeast re-
gion. Where as the Great Lakes region was a lot different they would give away wealth.
- The importance of kin ties, family matter a lot. Who counts as kin. In the Great Lake region
your kin would come from your father (dooddem). Iroquious the kin tie would come from your
mother. Another group would have the kin tie come from both.
- Place of human beings within cosmos - Extended def’n of personhood
- Responsibilities to other beings or animals. The idea of gift giving and the ideas of the power
of balance. Reciprocity and balance.
- Hospitality and the opening of new ideas.
3. Dynamic Societies
- These societies if we can take about change.
- Synchronic model = things are frozen in time.
• Trade and exchange
- Euros get into the trade networking markets.
• War and diplomacy
- Activities that were happening long before 1500, making up strategies, using weapons etc.
They would fight their wars a lot different than Euros would.
• Population Densities
- Around 1500 there were about 500,000 according to the text book.
- The densities to where people lived than haven’t changed to where people live today.
Tues. Sept. 20, 2011
Lecture 2: Visitors from East of the Dawn (Europe), 1500 - 1600:
Early Indigenous - European Interactions
• Focus: The Northeast
- There were politics and policies but no states
- Long and reasonable life if you survived the first year
- The rise of Europe in world domination, impact on shaping Canada. European communities
had the knowledge of the sea and ships and know how to use them. Growing middle class and
the merchants, they had money to fund explorations of the new world. People were curious of
the other parts of the world, and the expansion of Christianity.
1. 1492: Rethinking “First Contact”
• Rethinking Columbus - Italian hired to find a different route to get to India. He ends up en-
counter the nativeAmericans and calls them Indians. Looking for spice route and resources, and
to make money because money needed to support European monarchies because of the armies
• Pre-Columbian Encounters - 5000 years ago evidence that trade happened before Columbus.
Example Chinese jade found in Mexico 300,000 years ago. This was able to happen because of
the knowledge of the sea and using the currents.
• The Norse in Newfoundland - solid arch.evidence of the greenland colonies.
• European Expansion- 1492 marks the beginning of naval expansion and new colonies. The
catholic church had already converted others before. They already had these converting pro-
grams under way. They also had a strict social hierarchy, and a social oder. The merchants were making money from trade and you needed a license and money flowing around. This was some-
thing new happening in Europe. In the year 1440 the printing press was created in Germany,
1500 20 million books in Western Europe. Protestant reformation was happening in Europe as
well and major split in the Church.As well as Henry the 8th who wanted to divorce his wife and
split from the church again when the pope wouldn’t grant him a divorce (Anglican). Dealing
with these crisis church pushes back. England sends John Cabot to search for a new route be-
cause they wanted more fish and he found the eastern coast of Newfoundland.
2. Fisheries & Fur Trades
-Men would come over and capture the fish, and sell them. They would do the same with whal-
ing and use the whale for oils. The fur trade happens on the St. Lawrence region. The natives
that lived there would come and trade with the French. The French were interested in the old furs
not the new ones, because they wanted to make hats. Greasy Beaver is what this transaction is
3. Explorations & Encounters
• Fishers & Beothuk
- When the fishermen would leave for the winter the Beothuk would come and take the stages.
They would have the men stay for the winter so they wouldn’t come.
• Whalers & Mi’kamq - This happened on the east coast of Newfoundland.
• Jacques Cartier & St. Lawrence Iroquois - 1534, 1535 - 36 = ends up on Stadacone that is nev-
er the St. Lawrence river and the leader Donnacona welcomed him until Cartier put a cross in the
ground marking the land for France and took Donnacona’s sons. Hochelaga is modern day Mon-
treal, Cartier wanted to go their and Donnacona wouldn’t let him. Cartier gets told that there is
gold and copper in that area.
• Martin frobisher & the Inuit - the Inuit thought that Frobisher was a ghost and shot at him.
Took home rocks that he thought was gold but it ended up being fools gold the same thing that
happened to Cartier.
• New Trade Goods and New Trading Networks - they brought corn over and other things.
Cooper kettles came from France which became a wonderful thing.
• CulturalAdaptations- When the natives were given new things from the Europeans they would
look at them but use them in a different way.
• Disease/ Displacement/ Migrations- theAmericans were de-populated 90 - 95% but it didn’t
all happened at the same time. They brought over animals example chickens, pigs and they had
diseases that spread out.
Thurs. Sept. 22, 2011
Lecture 3: Christianity and Commerce a Dependent New France
1. Founding a Colony
• Indigenous Contexts in the Northeast -Huron WendatAlliance: Huron came from the French because of the hats they wore on their
heads. Wendat is there own name for themselves. There are five groups now instead of two, they
grow a surplus produce for trade (ie. tobacco).Algonquins are called that by the Jesuits.
• Haudenosaunne Confederacy ( people of the longhouse)- The belt is part of the confederacy
and the colours and it goes along with it. The womcame is a gift for when someone loses some-
one. They can be united against there enemies. The nations part of this are the Seneca, Cayuga,
Onondaga, Oneida, Mohawk. No super power to compel and antimony.
• Imperial contexts: The French wanted to be part of getting colonies because the Spanish and
English had already colonized in theAmericas. The reason for their colonies are merchant
colonies to make money and bring ti back to the countries (homeland). The French had stayed
out of the colonization for years before. Samuel Champlain goes for the fur trade and sees the
site of Quebec and likes the people that live there. The king doesn’t want it there choses Acadia.
• Beginnings in Acadia: People died inAcadia because of the weather and they fear the eng. pi-
rates and then they decide to go to Quebec.
• Beginnings in Quebec: There were dependent on supplies from France. 1617 there was one
family. After 1629 expands a little bit.Avery mall colony.
2. *The French & Huron-WendatAlliance
Formation & Structure: this alliance is the key for survival. Steady supply of furs and helps
supply the cost for supplies from the colony. Meet with a group ofAlgonquins and they wanted
to alliance him against there enemies of the Iroquois and Champlain knows this is important be-
cause it will show the alliance between the French and the natives, wins a victory for them and
begins a positive relationship between. They were then asked to live there in the winter. Young
boys were sent to live there and learn the language. No one would attack because they French
boys were there, this was a positive experience for all.
• To LiveAmongst Each Other: Lived in multiple family dwellings. French regarded the natives
as well build, healthy strong. But there were cultural difference. Food was a problem, euros ate a
heavy salty diet, the natives not so much.
Christianity and Commerce: These goals compete with one another and would put a problem
on there relationships. Champlain would travel back and forth because of the new laws passed in
France. The merchants did not want explores part of the fur trade, but the King wanted the ex-
plores to go. The Jesuits got involved in the fur trade, didn’t like some of the fur traders. Made
some of them convert to Christianity and understand it. The only conversions were of stifle bap-
tism when people were dying. The natives thought they were odd because they didn’t like the
food, kept to themselves and didn’t talk to women.
• Lost in Translation: in 1615 Champlain made first voyage to Georgian bay, meets a party of
300 men and they say there going to pick blueberries, but there weren’t it was a war party.
3. Times of Trial 1629-1650 • Pirates and the capture of new france- the eng. capture the french, when they came back and
then there is a epidemics that kills everyone in the new eng. colonies and spreads among the na-
tives and it is a very serious problem. The natives thought that diseases were caused by another
nation and this is called Mourning wars, the women would make the warriors go find the people
of other nations and they would stimulate them into their groups
• The destruction of the Huron Wendat Confederacy: Disease kills off everyone and breaks apart
4. An Uncertain Future 1608 - 1663
Radisson and Groseilleurs: comes to the new world and is captured by the Iroquois and writes
down what happens to him. He is stimulated into that community.
• Rebuilding the Haudenosaunne (Iroquois Confederacy): Radisson helps bring this back togeth-
er with everything he learned while being captured
• NewAllies in The Fur Trade: part of unlicensed fur trade and starts trading with the English
because they understand the trade better than the governors of New France.
Tues. Sept. 27, 2011
Lecture Four: The Royal Takeover and the Transformation of New France (1633 -1700)
1. Becoming a Royal Colony
- No cotton farming here.
• Absolutism - Louis IVX (Sun King), saw the growing strength of the British, Spanish in their
colonies overseas. Belief in the centralization of power. Devotedly Catholic and spreading it
overseas. Promoted colonization, and declared New France a province of France.
• Colbert and The Compact Colony- (1663- 1673) was a ten year plan to invest in the industry
and foster trade with the settlers and keep all of this near the St. Lawrence. Wanted New France
to dependent on themselves not from old France. Intendant Jean Talon looked after New France.
Wanted to go beyond fish and fur, and expand their products. The king authorized sending over
skilled ship builders.
• Assuring Military Security- send out 1200 soldiers to Montreal to protect the people.Attack
the Mohawk, and suffered more causalities but caused a lot of damage that the confederacy
made peace with them for the next 20 years.
• The filles du roi and Population Growth- Daughter of the king were sent out with a money,
they were orphaned girls, set to marry the French settlers. Many of them did marry and because
of them soldiers stayed now that women were around. The population grew because people were
getting married and they were having children. Families were given bonuses if they had more
than 10 children. Women would have children every two years.
2. Acadia and Newfoundland
• The Colony of Acadia - Ungoverned and was small population. 11 governors were sent out,
and they didn’t know what to do with that. It was captured 3 times during the 1700s by Eng.
• AcadianAgriculture - traded with New Eng. Had good farming and got along with the natives.
Newfoundland and the Cod Fishery - Was becoming bigger than the fur industry. 400 ships a
year coming to fish on the grand banks. Colbert drafted rules when it came to the fishery indus- try. Had to be 12 to work on a ship and if you were on a ship for six seasons you could be drafted
into the navy.
• Imperial Rivalries and Placentia- France est. a major base their with their military.
3. Colonial Administration in Canada
-Absolutism played a big role with administration
• Governing Canada: Colonial Officials, always a man, was in the army, someone with experi-
ence and high up there and was French. No printing press, no newspapers. There was a gouv’t
but it was made up by bishops, colonial officers and it was like the final court of appeal. Peasant
pop. had no direct political power and dealt with their problems with local captains.
• Law and Order: The Custom of Paris: law in France 1664. Crimes against god (hierarchy, blas-
mey, socerey) , king, people/ property. beheaded, amputee, sit in the stocks etc. The french used
the practice of gift giving when a native was involved.
• Religious Est.- Changes once new france becomes a new province. Church provides the
schools and hospitals by preaching submission in the church. The bishop appointed the priest.
• Seigneurial system: 1. King 2. Nobles/Gentry (seigneurs) 3. Censitaires (habitants/ peasant
farmers). Habitants had to pay for the land, and the seigneurs would make them do things ex. set
up a mill.
• Salisbury: what is he turing to the most? - past on archaeology, pretenses. Not a static past.
Agriculture= before they the natives were hunter and gathers and because of the euros they be-
came more agricultural.
• Hurons = agricultural based society. traded with the ojbway. Very important people on top and
ranking system below them. Huron and Iroquois had a similar language family.
Why is 1608 a contervical starting point of Canada= if it is it is excluding the first nations
people. Teleological = predestined, other outcomes that could of occurred.
Thurs. Sept. 29, 2011
Lecture Five: The Long Peace
1. New Faces in the Fur Trade
• When talking about the fur trade it is not just about the fur but about the social interactions
with the natives and euros. Alliances that come out of the fur trade.
• Anishinaabeg allies- becomes the new alliances of New France, and take on the role of middle
men in the fur trade. In 1616 the trade coming to the Great Lakes people. One of the important
customs is you have to be part of the family to be a part of the trades. Metis is the blend of the
french and native customs. Missionaries come along after 1616 to missions people, the Jesuits
are the ones that come. Become part of the political world along the great lakes. This alliance in-
sures long stability.
• Competition: Hudson’s Bay Company, 1670. Medard Chouart des Groseilliers and Pierre
Radisson only stay with the company for four years then go back to the french. English boats
came over to Ruperts land, so they can be part of the fur trade and they started a company. • Territorial Claims: 1672 France sends someone to claim the great lake region for the king.
Calls a council at Sue Sainte Maire, huge gathering ceremony so other euros can recognize
France’s territorial claim. Purpose to make French claim recognized to others mostly the eng.
The fur trade expanses as well.
2. Geopolitics Trumps Economics 1689 to 1713
• Failure of the Compact Colony: only lasts ten years, why doesn’t work because of wars with
the Dutch and funding is cut. Euro depression is another reason. Louis 14 attention turns away
from New France. Immigration is a big failure. Local industry ie. ship building fails as well, it is
expensive even though Canada did have wood, iron they didn’t have and it was expensive to
bring over. The only thing that didn’t fail was the brewery. It would of made sense to trade with
new eng. because they were close but because of mercantilism it wasn’t possible. Couldn’t ship
to the west indies because it was far and there were english pirates.
• Fur Trade Economics: by the 1680s there are major problems with the fur trade.The other al-
lies in the trade have a diff understanding of trade, not supply and demand. To not trade is to be
in a state of war. This is a policy decision.
• The Great Peace of Montreal, 1701: The French and Great Lakes people sign a treaty. Stay
neutral to the french and not attack their allies. For at least a decade creates some peace in the re-
gion and no war.
• The Treaty of Utrecht, 1713: Between France and Eng. who was going to take the throne in
Spain. Acadia gets seated to the Eng. and Cape Breton Island goes to France and this gets a
peace for Eng. and France for the next 30 years. It lets the colony grow and find industries.
3. The Long Peace
• Expansion ThroughAlliances: expansion of the forts. Balance of Power, 1755. Each of the
forts reps. The relations with the natives.
• Diversifying Economics: The golden age of new france, france has money again so it sends
money over again. Export trade in fish and sea oils. 1737, we see a road connecting montreal to
quebec. By 1700 agricultural is more important than the fur trade. Exporting flour and peas,
• Diverse Societies:
a) Slavery is part of experience here. 1680, there are a few hundredAfrican slaves working in
urban settings but there were more than 2/3 of native slaves living in new France 1680 to 1760s.
This happened when the French go into the Mississippi and people were given as gifts and in the
city of origin were stamped as slaves. This was a form of trading as well. Code Noir owners un-
der this law and responsible to cloth, feed, baptize, take care of their slave. Slave owners encour-
aged natives and blacks to have interrelations.
b) First Nations Along the St. Lawrence: - Huron- Wendat @ Lorette (Quebec)
- Wabanaki St. Francois
- Kanasatake (oka) & Kahnawake (St. Sault Louis) - Away for them to be kept an eye on.
c) Urban New France: Mostly rural. 3 towns = Trois Rivers, Montreal and Quebec. Populations
still same, streets are dirty and unhealthy. Markets were a place for trading and mixing. Towns
the only center of social life. Rank trumps everything, it wasn’t about how much money you had
but the social rank you got from your family. If you were member of the elite you didn’t have to
ci) Rural New France: Tired to crow the same crops as in Euro ex. hard to grow wheat in the St.
Lawrence valley but it grew and it was fine. Mostly Catholic society. Women higher death rate
because of child birth. Marriages would last 15 - 20 years when one of the partners would die
and then you would get remarried. 20% of Quebec died because of small pox.
Tues. Oct. 4, 2011
Lecture Six: The Clash of Empires
1. Conflict In The Long Peace
- Peace ends because of war in Euro
• Memories of War, 1689-1713: Wars between New France and the New Eng colonies, as well
as New France with the natives. Protestant New Eng against Catholic New france, viewed things
differently. The English are strong allies of the Iroquois confederacy. The seven communities
along the St. Lawrence used the french as allies against new eng. colonies. When they would
capture people from different groups they would try and convert them. It wasn’t until 1713 that
the fighting stopped between France and Eng.
Significance of Treaty of Utrecht,1713: This symbolized the peace between Spain, Eng, France
for about 30 years. Gain wealth at the expensive of other Euro powers. Expansion of trade, more
power the space couldn’t handle this so therefore war happened. No soldiers in the house, men
were able to far instead of going to wars.
• Frontier Conflicts:Aggressive instability. Outbreaks of violence and warfare of the nations of
the south. The most significant encounter happens with the fox nation, to go settle in Detroit to
strengthen their alliance along near where the french lived. Fighting broke out between the fox
and the older french alliance. French side with their older alliance. Proves to be a mistake. Over
1000 fox warriors are killed. The fox go to attack both the french and their alliances. The french
continued these allied attacks and then told them to stop because there wasn’t many foxes left.
The Euros had their own ideas and strategies of war and so did the natives and revenge attacks
were there own. They drove Euro powers into their own powers. There is no unity here. The
french was successfully because of gift giving to the natives and they didn’t expand away from
the St. Lawrence.
• Fortifying the Peace: Militarization did not stop during the time of peace. The french had forts,
part of a containment strategy to keep the english away. Hundreds of ships coming every year to
Louisberg. 1744 with official war in Euro, the colonies are aloud to go on a war mission. New
eng colonist go and attack Louisberg in 1744, they didn’t ask Britain for permission. Louisberg
is captured and ships and supplies are cut off. French wanted it back so badly they had to give
land to Britain to be able to get it back. The fact that Britain gave it back so easily got people in
Britain and in the New Eng. colonies upset. 2. War in the Ohio Valley, 1754-56
• The Ohio Company’s Threat: Young George Washington is an investor at this time. They want-
ed this part of Virginia. 500 acres given to the company to build there and have families come
• Defending New France’s Southwest: making a claim to the Ohio valley.
• The British Strike Back: the french had taken Virginia away from them, so they attacked an-
other 3 times, the only success was at a fort in Nova Scotia. War has not yet be declared in euro
but its close.
3. Acadian Expulsion, 1755
• The Struggle for Neutrality, 1713-1744: The treaty said that they can stay roman catholic. Take
an oath to the king but remain loyal to the french. The governor of Nova Scotia in 1730 says it is
okay they can do that. Struggle to maintain neutrality. It is the golden age for them and they are
free to trade with Louisberg, they don’t have to trade with new eng anymore. The Micmas didn’t
want to leave their land and said no they are not subjects but alliances of the french.
• War of Austrian Succession, 1744-1748 & Capture of Louisberg: When troops would come the
acadians troops would come into the houses. The acadians would tip off the france.
• Uneasy Peace, 1749 - 1755: When theAcadians said no to the treaty the British shipped them
off to other colonies with just the shirts on there back and families were spilt up. The new lands
weren’t good for farming so they had to become fishers.
HIS263 October 6
The Seven Years War
Initial French Successor
· Britain had a bigger army than France
· In the beginning of the war, Britain is in a better position to win in the colonies
· France preferred to fight on land whereas Britain preferred the sea
· France abandons NF because of this war
· Early defeats of the English, 1755
· Governor Vaudreuil’s plan of attack – governor of NF, in charge of relations with FN.
An admirer of FN way of war (skulking- hide in woods and ambush people). 1756, general
Montcalm- FN killed many prisoners; Montcalm took back 1500 prisoners
· Conflict with Montcalm- conflict between him and Vaudreuil. Montcalm wants a de-
fensive strategy but Vaudreuil wants to use more offensive war
· Siege of Fort William Henry, 1757: it was a key point. Vaudreuil recruits FN to as-
semble for this attack- 1000 warriors from upper Great Lakes. Diverse warriors with many
histories; no interpreters for all of them. 5 days of continual bombardment and they surren-
dered. They were allowed to keep muskets (not ammunition) and were allowed to leave
with their drums marching- FN not impressed. The British are attacked by FN- some killed,
just most of their stuff was taken. Because of their unhappiness, they agreed not to come
back to help French.
The Tide Turns
· William Pitt and Diverging Forces: Pitt the elder becomes PM of Britain- big sup-
porter of the colonies (public support). Britain is dedicating its forces to the colonies- Brit
navy able to controlAtlantic
· Britain takes Louisburg in 1758 · Battle for the Plains ofAbraham 1759: September, Brit trying to siege Quebec. Wolfe
decides to launch an attack on the citadel. Climb the escarpment; assemble on the plains of
Abraham. Montcalm then sent out his troops to battle with Wolfe on the plains.At the end
of the battle, both leaders die. Wolfe is immortalized in Brit for falling in the hour of victo-
ry. Therefore after this, Quebec is captured.
· Mopping Up/Military Rule: people of NF now under Brit military rule. Murray takes
command at Quebec. Quebec has real fears about the English (Catholicism,Acadia). He put
in strict rules guarding the Brit troops. They were able to speak French and able to talk to
them. Allowed them to continue Catholicism. Why were they successful? The navy
The Treaty of Paris 1763
· February 1763 and ends the war
· France gives up claim to most colonies
· They were willing to give up NF because there was not public support- too expensive
· Britain gets to keep Canada
· At the end of all this, Britain had a massive war debt but also was known as the
· All the FN did not regard themselves as being conquered
· Reaction of the Fall of NF: JefferyAmherst, commander of Brit forces at this time.
He said that they would not give gifts, what the French had been doing. Cut sales to alco-
hol. English fur traders now coming into Montreal to try to enter fur trade.
· Reaction to the Peace of Paris: FN thinking that the French would come back (long
relationship with them). FN feel betrayed. Neolin (religious leader who say trade was the
problem) & Pontiac (local chief); both went on speaking tours to promote ideals.
· Pontiac’s War: That spring and summer in 1763, these FN capture British forts. War-
riors came to fort in June and says they are going to play lacrosse, trick them and capture.
By September, the FN needed to go hunting but couldn’t keep the fort at the same time.
· Outcomes: attacks resulted in the deaths of many Brit soldiers.Amherst’s policy of
not giving gifts was rejected. William Johnson to begin negotiations with Indian nations;
they sent out many presents and tried to establish relationship.
· The Royal Proclamation: a document that says after 7YW, what will happen in all the
colonies. Brit makes a line to claim land for different groups (land for Indians- do not fol-
low Brit law). Over the winter, Johnson invites all the chiefs to come to a massive peace
· Treaty of Niagara belt: from Brit to FN, shows alliance- Johnson is successful.
Tuesday, October 11, 2011
Lecture Eight:Aftermath of Conquest, 1763-1774
1. The Proclamation of 1763
• Prologue: Forging Canada Through War
- Not to think of Canada as a nation forged by war
- Miss reading of Canadian history, we are shaped by at least four major wars. Defined the peo-
ple and the society of what is Canada today.
- a) Seven Years War 1756-1763: often called French and Indian War in NorthAmerican theatre,
1754-1756. - b)American Revolution/American War of Independence (1776- 1783)
- c) War of 1812 (1812-1814)
- d) Sixty Years for Great Lakes (1754-1814)
- You can see in any case war plays a big part in this time.
- Turned into new eng subjects the Indians, does not happen quickly. Major changes to legal
regimes and government in Canada. The Proclamation is not part of the British government. It
has force in law by the Prime Minister. Instructions for all new British territories and how they
will be part of the British Empire. Only Protestants were allowed to sit in the assemblies and
vote, not fair to the Catholics. Discussed ranking and how much land you should have, no one
can buy land from Indigenous people only from the Crown of England. This is now in the Char-
2. The Conquest and Quebec
• Articles of Capitulation, 1760 and “decapitation”: Idea to want extend society and political
elites had the ties to go back to France.Almost sixty years before we see a strong protest move-
ment in Quebec.
• Proclamation of 1763: This imposes British law on Quebec, so the French practices of the civil
code. Ex. French civil code you would divide your land among you children and the wealth
would be spilt among them, in British law you would pass it to the eldest male son and that was
it and the sons would have to go into the military. By 1763 the French civil code would be abol-
ished. It would only represent those who were Protestant. They thought a rush of new colonist
would come to Quebec and push out the French. By 1765 only 17000 settlers, that is not enough.
They are going to have to change policies to deal with these populations.
-Murray is the governor in 1764. French still practicing their civil codes. Needs to approve
French lawyers in courts and on juries because there is not enough Protestants. The catholic
church is in a bad place because the bishop died during the war. Works with the catholic church,
becomes to close to them. The British notice this and they do not like this, the English merchants
protest and is recalled.
• Remaining French in British NorthAmerica
- No elected assembly, French civil law back into place.
- The right of seniors to collect there rents was reinforced. British laws did not apply in Indian
territory. Old habitant system back into place as well.
3. British-Indigenous Relations
• The Proclamation Line and Indian Territory: recognized the rights of the Indians, along the
lines of the Pontiac War. Britain was in debt from the seven years could not sent more troops
over. They did not want an Indian up roar.
• Treaty of Niagara, 1764: They were not going to listen to what the English laws said. There
were belts made by Sir William Johnson and they symbolized the alliance between them.
• Treaty of Fort Stanwix, 1768: No tribes would move back of the Ohio River Valley.Allowing
settlers into this area. • QuebecAct, 1774: Brings British law in. Because for the next ten years there would be attacks
between the natives and settlers and they needed laws in this area of the Ohio River Valley.
4. Atlantic Colonies After the War
-British gov’t banded fishery from this area, from the people of the New Eng. The north coast of
Labrador is getting settlers.
• St. John’s Land (P.E.I): first settled byAcadians, after the war spilt into townships and gave 64
of the lots given to Kings favourite. Everyone who got one of these lands was supposed to get
settlers to settle there. That never happened, but then it become a place of renters not owners.
Nova Scotia and the Planters: Halifax was est. at this time, as an important naval base. Settlers
from New Eng called Planters came to theseAcadian land to settle there. They are not just part
of theAnglican church but from others because of all the splits. Most of them were traders and
independent. They would get tons of settlers but then they stop getting settlers. Gets an assem-
bly, Yankee population, by 1774 we are getting to see all the fault lines in the British acts. It
looked like Nova Scotia would be part of the revolution but they rejected.
Thurs. Oct., 13, 2011
Lecture Nine: Loyal They Remained: TheAmerican Revolution and British NorthAmerica
1) Quebec, Invaded!
• Rebellion Brewing:After the fall of Quebec, they were part of this whole British Empire.
British bankrupt from the 7 years war. Britain passed acts to raise taxes. Ex. the sugar act (tax on
sugar), the stamp act (tax on printed documents) these all happen after the fall of the Treaty of
Paris by 1765, the Sons of Liberty (US group) is formed they harass the tax collectors. 1770,
there is a British mob. The Boston tea party, Americans who call themselves patriots dress up as
Natives and go to the harbor and dump the tea. Britain closes the harbor in Massuaschettes and
disablies their assembly. Spring of 1775 the American army is ready and the British know that
war is coming. Kick the British out of Boston and attack Quebec.
• Quebec in Question: do not take Quebec, Britain will use it to bring more troops in. Revolu-
tionary pamphlets are given out to the large percentage of the pop. Montreal surrenders. 1775 -
1776 Quebec is under america colonial milita and British comes kick them out.
• Divided Loyalties: Both sides are english speaking protestants. The Habitants tried to stay neu-
tral, did not know what side to take. The six nations confederacy saw these troops pass, confed-
eracy was under strain. The Mohawk and Seneca the ones that settled outside of Montreal take
Britain’s side. The confederacy is having to choice sides in this conflict.
• Carleton’s Failure: They did chase them (American colonial milita) down, but did not go be-
yond. If he had gone to fully chase them they may of stopped the american revolution from hap-
pening. 2) Defeat of the British
• The War in theAtlantic Region: Newfoundland choice Britain right away. Half of Nova Scotia
was New English people who had just come to Nova Scotia ten years before, but Halifax was a
very important naval down who needed Britain. They was support in rural Nova Scotia for the
movement. No interest in St. John’s. The one way theAmericans funded the war was pirating.
All coastal village was attacked at least once.
• The Theatre Moves: Moves to theAmerican middle south. British provision the troops.
• Defeat at Yorktown: It is in Virginia and is really close to Jamestown (the first colony). Then
another treaty of Paris is created in 1783 and Britain recognizes the USA.
The Divided Ground: New boarder, split the lands from Hudson’s Bay to Florida. The impact
of the Great Lakes people is betrayal because they did not fight, they discovered that after 1783
there land below the line are part of the USA, the Treaty of Paris does not even mention them.
Britain no longer has the post for the fur because they are below the line, they want to keep the
fur trade going and keep their native allies happy.
3) The Loyalist Influx, 1783-1794
- The loyalist were no longer welcomed in their new country of USA. 70,000 people had to leave
and a lot of them had ties to this land. Britain took the people to populate Quebec and Nova Sco-
• Refugees From War: They are going to get land when they go to Canada.They are going to
bring their ideas along with them. There were soldiers and the six nation confederacy moves to
Canada because they could not stay in the States. Slaves of loyalist came as well as free blacks
who came because they fought for the British. But they did not get the same amount of land as
the white loyalist. They would not be property owners so they only needed a small amount of
• Settling the Loyalist: Some ended up in Nova Scotia and others in New Brunswick. After a
year they say there gov’t in Halifax is in to far. The British decide to spilt them into three with
there own gov’t Halifax one, New Brunswick One and Cape Breton one.
• The ConstitutionalAct, 1791: TheAnglicans not happy being in Quebec, they are settled in the
townships of eastern Ontario (Kingston to the Quebec boarder). Then after complain from them
the British gov’t splits Quebec into two, Upper Canada and Lower Canada. They are not going
to give them a lot of power, they are going to give them a governor so they would not have to
face another revolution and they would have elected reps. so people have their voice as well.
Catholics can vote and run for positions. Let the French keep their civil code. Upper Canada is
determined to be like the British. 2) Redefining British North America
• Lower Canada, 1791-1812: Governors in lower Canada favored english elites. Even though
French can hold positions in gov’t. They become big in the timber trade. The French navy is go-
ing to get their timber from this region. Over use of soil is effecting the economy. Crops not
• Upper Canada, 1791-1812: First Governor is Sir John Graves Simcone. Simcone wants to
make this region a mini Britain. Changed the native names into names of English towns. They
are doing wealthy this region because the soil was unused.After 1794,Americans came for the
free land in Canada called the Late Loyalists because they came after the first generation of loy-
alists.Abolish slavery: you can not bring new ones and the children of slaves when turn 25 will
get their freedom.
Tuesday, October, 18, 2011
Lecture 10: The War of 1812
- The War of 1812 was a war between the USAand Britain and it was fought on Canadian soil,
one place was York (Toronto). The USAwanted to take over and capture Canada so they invad-
ed. The Natives tried one last time to save their lands. Bit connected to the Napoleonic wars in
France. Everyone involved at that time said they had won. The first nations lose the war but they
do win key battles, but even though they won some they still did not get land and protection. The
last time the USAhas invaded Canada.
- Changing settlers patterns, they are loyalists and mixed natives. Movements of settlers move
on to Mississauga land.
1) Preparing for War:
• Lieutenant Governor Simcoe’s Plan:
- Made sure Canada was a model of Britain.
- Moved the capital from Niagara on the lake to York.
- Tried to make defense units to protect the people.
- Drafted men into the military. 5000 officers and men enrolled into the military.
• Indigenous allies& the British Indian Dept.:
-Part of military and that native allies remain attached to the British.
-Former colonial officials from the States and some of them were inter married.
-Britain keeps the forts in the USAdoes not give it to them.
• Isaac Brock’s Plan:
- Commander and chief in 1811. Military man.
- Tries to improve the military and get more people involved.
- There was Americans who had come to live in Canada.
• Tecumseh’s goals:
-The British were the only allies left to help the Great Lakes people regions land back. 2) Casus Belli (Cause for War)
• Naval blockades &the War in Europe
-The USAdecelerated war on June 18th 1812. They did this because they wanted to whole conti-
nent. Wanted to be neutral in the Napoleon wars, and said they would supply both of them with
things. Britain wanted them to pick a side and said if they do not they will stop their ships and
they did. The British would pick up men from townships when they needed more men.
• Impressments & the ChesapeakeAffair: Still inAmerican waters the ship and the British
shipped fired at it and took the deserters. This angered the USAmore. Britain to far away, colony
to the North looked a lot easy to go after.
• American expansion/indigenous resistance: popular idea that the attacks were being fueled by
• War Hawks in Congress: pressure from the people in the south who did not want to be part of
the British because Florida was still a British colony
-Britain said they would give USAtheir neutrality but it was to late because they had already
started the war
3) Campaigns and Casualties
• Avery Civil War: This was not a war against Britain but a civil war because the people of both
sides had ties on either side of the boarder. 2/3 of the soldiers fighting for Canada were eating
beef from the USA, trade was still going on.
• Winning on land, losing at sea: The British showed up with troops. They are winning on land.
In 1813 when theAmericans gain control of the Great Lakes, that is when they start losing
• York Burning: Capital sit here. Loyalists are here as well.
-Summer of 1813 both sides are winning and losing ex. USAloses the battles of beaver dam.
TheAmericans win one when the Native leader is killed
-By 1814 it is clear there is not going to be an easy winner, the negation in Belgium, they made a
treaty and war would be over, but lack of communication there is one final battle at New Orleans
and the USAwins.
• 1812 Mythologies: Laura Second, tipped off the British troops.Americans came to her house as
she was eating dinner, gave them dinner got them drunk and heard there plan and went to go tell
the Canadian army went just in time.
4) Aftermath of War
• Negotiations at the Treaty of Ghent: The Natives wanted a place that would separate from the
British andAmerican lands and have their own. They paid them half pay, the men who had
fought in the war. For fifty years they kept the Indian dept. The Natives were never mentioned in
-What happened to the people who’s farmers where on the battle routes. Took 10 years to get
some money • Status quo ante bellum: everything goes back to the way it was before it happened. The forts
would go back to who every had them before the war.
• Buffer states and betrayals
• Loyalists and “loyalism’: foundational moment for what would become Canada. Something
forged here, the experience of war and how you felt because of it.Anti-Americanism started,
who we are and we are not them. See the changing attitude of republicanism. Patriotism is
spread in Upper Canada and being loyal to Britain and especially in York.
Thurs. Oct., 20, 2011
Lecture 11: TheAtlantic Region to the mid-nineteenth century
- How regionalism takes root in Canada and how it emerges
- Atlantic Canada only gets four colonies because the debates of the formation around the consti-
- Key development that is outlined in the constitution, socially and politically.
- They are all controlled by a small ruling elite from Britain. By 1880 all of these colonies will
have their own ruling councils and reps. Shift from rule of British to local rule.
- Each of the four distinct spaces are shaped by distinct newcomer relations, immigration,
economies, local politics.
- Out of the four colonies from 1806 - 1861, Nova Scotia continues to grow increasingly. They
are all growing. New Brunswick is second, Newfoundland third and P.E.I is fourth. 1855 is the
year of the most growth.
- Following the Napelonic wars in Euro recession followed because the war had ended. People
in the British isles were in economic restrain and people looking for new life, so they come to
Canada because it is closer, cheaper and they speak the same language. Push and Pull factors for
Canada, same people coming, same gov’t.
- Early 19th century Industrial Revolution, has an effect on the British.
- There are different types of English: Scottish, Walsh, Irish and they bring there issues with
them. They would debate Catholic rights, Protestant etc.
- Scottish: Scottish enlightenment
- Irish poorest of the people who came. More Irish came before the Great Potato Famine than
- All these people have in common what was happening at home, there is something better out
there and take a risk.
1. Newfoundland: Doesn’t join confederation until 1949. Often been left out of history and fo-
cus, but was established a lot before than the others
• Beothuk/Colonist Relations: marked by hostilely. Settlers thought it was okay to harass
Beothuk. They become extinct.
People: 40,000 by 1830
-Irish Catholic and English Protestant, West Coast of England.
- Both groups were split into two groups.
- Education controlled by different religions.
- Intermarriage was not support - Hard accents mixed of Irish and Scottish
• Economy & Politics: it was always thought of as a poor place.
-Increased their economy with fishing once Napoleon stopped sending people over for fish
-They started seal hunting and capturing seals. 600 000 seals were killed a year by 1841.
-Does not become a British colony by 1824.
-Local merchants had the role of judge and others. Once Britain colonizes it they put in judges.
-The power rested with the Protestants in the Upper House and Catholics in the other areas.
2. Nova Scotia: Originally a Scottish colony. Don’t have any Scottish there until the 19th centu-
-Halifax a major port city.
• Indigenous/ New comer relations: There is no treaties in this area only friend treaties and there
are issues with timber and fishing.
-Once more settlers come they out number the Natives
-Most of the people came from theAmerican colonies during the revolution and after the revolu-
tion a lot of Loyalists come
• People & society: Good mixed economy turning this period.
-Early banks were created here.
-Merchants needed them
-People who were doing business had to go to London, and that was a lot of risk so they created
banks. Banks issued there own currency. Helped the local economy to grow.
-Politics: More Protestant population, they wanted more political power in the legislature assem-
blies. Britain starts to lead more of this control over to the colonies.By the 1830s all men should
have the ideas of universal suffrage. Modeled after British gov’t. By 1848 first colony with a re-
sponsible gov’t. With elected mps first. This transition to responsible gov’t is the first of shifting
3. New Brunswick: Similar native population to Nova Scotia
-Britain wanted to study natives and their problems.
-Population of French Acadians and vast diversity of English.
-Very strong loyalist population
-Least problematic for the British to control, most of the people were Protestants
-The problems came from the economy, there popular thing was timber. British navy needed tim-
ber so New Brunswick economy grew because of that but political problems came because of it.
The granting of timber licenses and what the gov’t was going to spend the money on.
-1848 they get a responsible gov’t as well
4. Prince Edward Island: very small native population
-Smallest in numbers
-In 1783, population 1000 people
-Divided into 67 township for King George's friends. You could not get your own land here.
They started out as tenants and then they would get land and the title was not given leading (po-
litical issue). People would leave because of this. It took 75 years to prove to get your own land, had to prove your ancestors were loyalist and you stayed on the land and cultivated it. This push-
es people to get a responsible gov’t as well, they do.
-Everything above goes with the two themes of colonial Canada and the connection with Britain
-Everything below goes with the two themes of geography and political governance
Tues. Oct. 25, 2011
Lecture 12: Upper Canada: Society, Politics&Economy to 1837
• Immigration Patterns: There is no more room in Britain and Canada is a colonial so therefore
people should go there. Migration to Canada from the US stopped because it was cold here, and
Britain made it illegal to grant lands toAmericans and the only ones welcomed were slaves.
They established new lives here, and they experienced some slavery here but they were also able
to start new lives.
-By 1842 1/3 of people were born in Britain.After the war of 1812 the population stood at 95
000 and ten years 105 000, 1837 population at 400 000. Most of these newcomers had no con-
nection to the issues here ex. the war 1812. They bring their own set of issues. The Natives find
themselves marginalized and not even the loyalists were to as recognized during this increase of
• Settlement Patterns:
-Rural Development: Immigrates settled along the rivers where the natives have lived. The town-
ships become villages with governments, farmers etc.As more people come the settlements go
further and further back until they come to the Canadian shield and no one settles there.
-Urban Development: There is about 1000 people at the beginning of Toronto. The people who
are coming in are changing the face of the land.
Class, Rank and Culture: Transition period during this time, rank society. Rank comes from the
British society with the Nobles at the top who did not work and got money from the lands they
owned. Middle class is the people who worked. Then farmers and then domestic servants. The
idea of deference which meant being charitable and being kind to one another. It is being chal-
lenged after the war of 1812 because there were different ideas of rank and how people should
be ranked. Tension during this time because rankings should be based on wealth. The idea of a
class that had more elegance and class. The governor would pick these men to be on his council.
The upper council would not give them to much power because then a revolution would happen
like in the US.
• Religion & Morality: Religion mattered even if you did not want it. Most of the population is
all Christian and then there are different groups in Christianity itself. The Church of England is
the only one that got support from the English gov’t. The other church’s had to get their funds
from the members. Debate whether are not there should be a state supported religion.Another is-
sue was mortality and that was alcohol and the problems alcoholism caused men drinking away
their pay check and living his children and wife with no money. 1820 - 1870 half a million peo-
ple took the pledge not to drink alcohol. 2. Politics
• Post War “Loyalism”: They were loyal to the King of England and a strong tie to the British
constitution it balanced the monarchy with the hierarchy and the democratic house of commons.
• Family Compact: close social connections and family ties. They create networks around itself
with like minded people in other cities. Three main issues:
1)The power of the curse (budget controls)
• The Rise of Reform: 1818 is when it starts. By 1830s more people are calling out the powers
• Petitions and Protests: People would write petitions and if they were ignored they would con-