Lecture 1 and 2 (Sept. 10,12)
The Charter of Rights and Freedoms was first introduced in 1982.
- Democratic rights
- Mobility rights
- Legal rights
- Equality rights
- Official languages (French/English)
- Minority language education rights
Quebec never signed the charter but they are nonetheless subject to its laws.
There are over 100 reserves without fresh drinking water. They are on a boil water advisory.
The First Nations Population around 1500
The early first nations all depended on regional resources for survival. They were organized in
bands that followed the seasons and the cycle of game.
The planting of corn, tobacco, beans, squash, and sunflowers led to the establishment of semi-
The first nations economies were all based around food supply.
The Aboriginal population, lacking immunities to a variety of European diseases was quickly
decimated by epidemics.
Europe around 1500
The arrival of Europeans in the Americas was a collaborative effort by mariners and
New ship design and advancements in navigation allowed for transatlantic voyages.
The principal attraction to exploration in the West was primarily due to the potential exploitation
of resources in the New World.
Among all the nations that explored North America, the French were the most likely to take into
account the feelings of the indigenous peoples they encountered. Unlike other exploring nations that would just raise objects of possession like crosses and pillars
the French sought to communicate ceremonies of possession with their inhabitants.
They relied heavily on bodily movements to signify formal consent. The English on the other
hand would assume that building habitats and permanently occupying areas meant formal
L’Anse aux Meadows – An area in Newfoundland where Norse buildings were discovered in
1961. The buildings were dated to between 980-1020 C.E.
The European Entry into North America
By 1536, Newfoundland had become sufficiently familiar to Europeans that a tourist voyage to
the island was organized.
Jacques Cartier (1491-1557) made three separate voyages to Newfoundland, one for the initial
discovery, one to survey for mineral deposits, and another that proved unprofitable.
The St. Lawrence region had been established as French territory.
Martin Frobisher (1539-1594), an English explorer, searched for a northwest passage for years
but eventually just came back with mineral samples from Baffin Island.
Frobisher’s quest for the Northwest Passage inspired a series of explorers, mainly Englishmen
backed by English capital.
Henry Hudson was one of the better know adventurers. He discovered Hudson’s Bay and
navigated its eastern coastal waters until his crew muti