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Lecture 23.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Bohaker/ Penfold

Lecture 23 – Expanding Confederation The major challenge facing the nation was its sense nationalism, or lack thereof. The assumed basis of national unity did not exist - Common language - Religion - Ethnic origin Emerging Expressions of Nationalism Canada First movement – British and Protestant Canada’s attempt to identify and promote a nationalism for the new Dominion of Canada. Ultramontane’s – French/Catholic group who believed in the subordination of the state to the church. The Guibord Affair – An event when the Catholic Church refused to give Guibord a Christian burial. In 1874 the British Empire ruled that burial was a civil right. Conservative Government Forced to Resign The Pacific Scandal – Revealed that Macdonald and Carter had accepted more than $300,000 in campaign funds from the Canada Pacific Company who was a contender for the railway contract. The scandal forced Macdonald to resign and a liberal government was formed. Canada under Liberal Leadership Alexander Mackenzie won office with 138 of 206 seats as Canada’s first Liberal leader. The liberal party lacked internal unity; they built their party platform out of a common dislike for the conservatives. Mackenzie took office during an economic depression; this forced him to postpone the building of B.C.’s railway. In 1875, they established the Supreme Court of Canada, the first Canadian court to review laws. They also introduced the secret ballot and practice of 1 day election across the entire country The National Policy of John A. Macdonald Macdonald’s “national policy” consisted of 3 essential items. - National policy introduced, high protective tariff to secure national trade - Completion of transcontinental railway - Settlement of West through immigration The conservatives argued that a protective tariff would shift trade from north/south axis to an east/west axis and therefore help the national economy. The liberals however believed that the tariff was simply there to benefit central Canadians. The tariff heightened the feeling of division by pitting the Maritimes/BC against Ontario/Quebec Building the Canadian Pacific Railway A railway was needed to link all of Canada together and permit Canada to become a great North American nation. Reasons for building the railway: - The need to secure control over Northwest Territories to prevent American colonizers - It would make Canada a valuable member of the British Empire by creating travel to Asia through BC - Politicians believed in the resource potential of the Northwest - Seen as an essential component of uniting the new nation - The promise to BC of a railway in 10 years obliged every government party to pursue the building of the railway Search for a Private Company MacDonald favoured a private company to build the railway. He settled on the Canada Pacific Company after receiving generous campaign funding from the company’s president. The Pacific scandal caused them to resign and the Liberals only performed work on the railway when money was available. The Canadian Pacific Railway Company took over the contract under very generous terms with the Conservatives re-took power. The CPR Route The CPR Company adjusted their route based on proximity to the American railway, discovery of coal mines, and increased confidence in fertile land in the pr
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