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HIS263Y1 (268)

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Heidi Bohaker

HIS263 Feb 10 The two Twenties The Elusive Twenties The image of the Twenties is often very optimistic Cars and fashion and other forms of popular culture begin to explode But there was also unrest, uncertainty and pessimism We tend to think of phenomenon and tie them to a decade We use decades as containers of phenomena and these don’t always correlate The Search for Political Stability The first half of the twenties can be recognized as a search for political stability This period produced the first minority government in Canadian history The Progressives appear on the scene as a separate political party William Lloyd Mackenzie King takes over for Laurier after his death in 1919 He faces challenges from the west and particularly from the east (The Maritimes Rights Movement) The Rights Movement is a coalition of a variety of social group, particularly business interest This flowed form the declining economic and political power of the maritime provinces The Maritimes population was growing too slowly compared to the rest of Canada The maritime economy had moved into a period of long term stagnation, particularly the industrial economy They tied these grievances to emerging regional patriotism They argues for high tariffs to protect maritime industry and for better railway rates to encourage trade They argues this points for an economic interest and also because it tied the economy from the east to the west The Progressives broke from the existing party structure but the Maritimes worked from within the structure and appeared as liberal until 1925, when they switched to the conservatives In 1921, King was in a difficult situation King required the support of the progressives from the west who wanted lower tariffs and from the east, the Maritimes, who wanted to higher tariffs However, King is an amazing Politian and a master of building the coalition building games Kings solution was to largely ignore the Maritime movement and to cater to the moderate progressives King uses Royal Commissions to his advantage The effect of this strategy is initially to continue the instability The Assault on Prohibition Prohibition was enacted in all provinces except QuØbec Canada was dry as of the end of WWI These dry forces wanted to extend the prohibition Most provinces, except Quebec, extend prohibition laws Under a dry regime, we see the weakness of prohibition emerging Enforcing prohibition is a complete nightmare Despite prohibition, there is still alcohol widely available Provinces are only capable of closing serving areas They can’t prohibit its production, or its movement between provinces Most stuff gets sent to the US or gets distributed into a complex and massive underground economy for alcohol Most consumers get their alcohol from local bootleggers who run out of the back of a house or restaurant, barbershops, taxi cabs You could also find them at Blind Pigs, which were small illegal bars often run by a woman In December of 1920, Vancouver raided 108 separate Blind Pigs The second problem is that the wet forces counter attack against prohibition They come out with increasingly organized and increasingly sophisticated campaigns against prohibition They organize new institutions to oppose prohibition (Citizens’ Liberty League; Moderation Leagues) Among these groups, the idea of moderation begins prevalent
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