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Lecture 10

Lecture 10 - The War of 1812

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Heidi Bohaker

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The War of 1812 Preparing for War  Britain vs the US - fought mostly in Upper Canada  The US wanted to take over Canada  Last major war of the 60 Years War over the Great Lakes  The Indigenous peoples are still fighting to protect their land - 2 wars in one  England vs France - Napoleonic Wars  Who won the War of 1812  The Whitehouse was burned - Americans teach that the Americans won  Difference between the events of the war and how it's interpreted  The Natives did not succeed in getting a buffer state or getting recognition  It was the last time the US invaded Canada  Changing settler patterns changed wartime preparations - initially Loyalists half aboriginal allies from the 6 Nations - another group under John Norton has Mohawk Natives - moving onto Mississauga land  Intermarried from New York and moved to Mississauga Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe's Plans  War preparations moved capital from Niagara on the Lake to Toronto  Any boat larger than a canoe, you had to build in the Great Lakes  Queen's Regiment - his own infantry unit  Men age 16-50 ------- had to own a firearm but it wasn't too strenuous work...not very effective  5000 men in the militia though  1796 Simcoe is gone Indigenous Allies & The British Indian Department  Keep Native allies through any means  Keep forts they were supposed to give back to the Americans  Frontier tension - 1791 US tried to invade Ohio Valley and Natives destroyed them and stuffed their mouths with dirt ------ Mad Anthony Wade led a second US army in the Battle of Fallen Timbers...didn't want to upset the Americans at their Fort, so they closed the gate on their Native allies... Isaac Brock's Plans  3/5 of the 75,000 people were recent American arrivals (were they going to be loyal?)  Brock allies with Tecumseh noted warleader who has influence over most of the first nations East of the Mississippi --- between the two of them it was a significant factor against the Americans Tecumseh's Goals  British only known allies who can help them keep any land at allCasus Belli  "cause of war" --- U.S. declared war officially on June 18th 1812  Some Americans wanted to take over all of Canada "Manifest Destiny" Naval Blockades & the War in Europe  US wanted to be neutral in Napoleonic Wars to sell goods to both sides with non-war items...made the European countries angry…  Britain imposes a Navy Blockage against them coming to Europe Impressment & The Chesapeake Affair  British picked up random men to force them into the Navy  British start stopping and searching American ships..supposedly looking for deserters, but didn't view the Americans as Americans  Chesapeake was attacked by the B
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