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HIS263 September 25 - The Royal Takeover and Transformation of New France.docx

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Bohaker/ Penfold

HIS263 September 25, 2012 The Royal Takeover and the Transformation of New France i. Becoming a Royal Colony ii. Acadia and Newfoundland iii. Colonial Administration in Canada iv. The People of New France - 1/5 of Canadians speak French as a first language o This is mostly spoken in Quebec and New Brunswick France in North America—1663 - Canada is now a colony rather than a village o 3,000 people in 1663 - Acadia had 500 people o What is now New Brunswick/Nova Scotia - Very small population in contrast to the indigenous nations around them - Canada and Acadia on agriculturally marginal land o Not suited for large-scale plantation o Better for family farming - Fur trade - Military fort was established in order to protect fishing claims in Newfoundland - Fur trade reopened in the 1550’s Becoming a Royal Colony - 1643—Louis XIV becomes king (five years old) - Comes into his majority 1661 o King in action as well as name o This is at a time when France is competing directly with England and Spain - Wants France to grow its empires, its oversea colonies o To enrich France and make it the most powerful European country - Believed strongly in Absolutism o Wanted to control, unite and strengthen France - Very Catholic and anti-Protestantism o Promoted conversion in the communities in Canada - Known as the sun king o Positions himself at the centre of the universe - Decides to take New France under his direct control and make it a royal province, just like the provinces in France o Hugely significant Colbert and the Compact Colony Plan - Jean-Baptiste Colbert in charge of New France - What Talon wants is to create self-sufficiency in New France o To continue without so much help from France o Economic initiatives—expanding trade beyond fishing and furs o Wanted to start industries—ship building and a brewery - Louis XIV wanted to give gifts to New France to help them grow o Gives New France horses Becoming a Royal Colony, 1663-1673 - Assuring military security o Carignan-Salieres Regiment 1665 o Significant population increase o Old soldiers paid through the French government o Receive their salaries and use the cash in the local economy - Protect soldiers from attacks from the H. confederacy - One expedition in 1666 to attack the confederacy o Soon after a peace agreement made to establish the fur trade further - Another gift was young women—The Filles du Roi o Most were orphans o Came to New France to be married o Cash dowry o One eligible woman for every six men who wanted to marry - Other women who were nuns, vow of chastity and no marriage - Filles du Roi were chaperoned by nuns o Had some say in who to marry o Their presence encouraged many soldiers to stay when their tour of duty was up - Higher taxes if you were single o Bonuses if you had more than 10 kids - The Great English Migration 1630-1660 o Economy o Rumours of a warmer climate o Religious upheaval in England  Catholics suppressed by growing Anglican authority o 214,000 emigrated out of England Colonial Administration in Canada - Acadia—off on its own, in what is now NB and NS o Ignored, left to its own devices o Assigned a governor who tends not to do much work o Creates a separate culture and dialect - Colonial Officials o Government run by an elite, sovereign council - Idea of paternalism in this government o Power exercised by social elites for the good of the people - No printing press in New France - Local people—Habitants - Law and Order: The Custom of Paris o Civil law—two distinct practices of c
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