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HIS263 October 2 - The Long Peace.docx

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HIS263 October 2, 2012 The Long Peace i. Competition in the Fur Trade ii. Fur and Empire iii. Long Peace or Cold War? iv. Imperial Rivalry and Distinct Society Competition in the Fur Trade - New France faces competition in the fur trade from Britain—1670 - Médard Chouart des Groseilliers - Pierre Radisson o There two men start the fur trade but the fur is confiscaded by colonial officials— entered the Great Lakes without a license o Left New France and travelled to the English, told them how to get furs from the Cree people (now Northern Ontario) o Going down to Hudson’s Bay and James’ Bay  English already knew about this route from when they looked for the northwest passage - 1670—Charles II granted the trading monopoly to his cousin Prince Rupert o This creates the Hudson’s Bay Company - British trade plunges inland - French face competition from Hudson’s Bay and from rivals based in New York o The French have to respond to this Fur and Empire - French respond to the HBC by pushing their trade inland - As they get further south (St. Louis, Mississippi) they often find more natural resources o Moving into more eco systems o Mixing of Europeans and indigenous space o The deeper the trade goes, the more likely the traders are to stay inland - Mangeurs de lard o Part-timer fur traders, just winter in the interior - Coureurs de Bois o Illegal traders - Voyageurs o Legal traders - Often adopt quasi-native lifestyles o Hunting, fishing o Often married native women  Married in indigenous ways, not in church  Called “women in between”  Economic and cultural brokers between Europeans and indigenous societies  Knowledge of geography, how to treat the pelts  Allowed access to the woman’s kin networks that have knowledge or can help with trading  Metis—people who as a result form these marriages - Trade is linked to friendship and alliance o Rituals, language of trade is often indigenous o Less about money, more about imperial strategy - By 1750, very little settlement by the French in the interior o 1701, French fur trade loses money year after year, but is continued for strategic reasons
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