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HIS263 October 4 - The Clash of Empires.docx

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Bohaker/ Penfold

HIS263 October 4, 2012 The Clash of Empires i. Conflict in the Long Peace ii. War in the Ohio Valley, 1754-56 iii. Acadian Expulsion - Seven Years War—considered first global war Fortifying the Peace - During the long peace, people still remember the previous conflicts o People in England thinking of people in New France and their allies o People in New France worrying about growing number of protestants in New England - Dutch are out in 1667 o The English then enter their own alliance with the H. Confederacy - 1689-1713 o Long series of frontier raids between New England and New France o New France with its aboriginal allies harassing British towns and vice versa - Peace of Montreal o Bringing peace to the Great Lakes Region o Skirmishes between French and English didn’t end until 1713 - Actual conflict shifted to economic conflict o Trading at the expense of others - Frontier conflicts result in “period of aggressive instability” outside the main colonial settlement areas o No peace for first nations peoples - Tense Atlantic region in this period - Massachusetts set a bounty for the scalp of the man over the age of 12 (first nations people) o New England trying to eliminate first nations peoples o First nations retaliating with French support - Series of interior wars during the time of peace o Fox wars (around 1710) o Although it was called the long peace, there was a lot of instability and conflict - French successfully used gift diplomacy, viewed by the first nations as rent for the land o Did not try to expand the land beyond the St. Lawrence valley or beyond their posts o Bringing in large numbers of settlers - Just because peace was declared in 1713, doesn’t mean that military presence wasn’t involved - Louisburg (Cape Breton) o Becomes a massive fort o Security of Quebec and New France—entrance into the St. Lawrence o Treaty let the French keep Cape Breton o Important fishing station, place for ships o 4 busiest sea port in the Americas (after Boston, NY, and Charleston) o Built for war and defence - Long peace ends in 1744 o Outbreak of war in Europe  War in Europe began 1739 - New Englanders decide the time is right to attack Louisburg o Not the government of England but New England’s governors o Arrange for help from the Royal Navy o Louisburg commanders surrender - Almost like an attack from two different nations—New England and the English o Showing the beginning of a new nation (US) - English pirates were able to capture French ships bringing supplies to New France o Without the supplies, gift alliance diplomacies are depleting - French manage to get Louisburg back o English colonies upset - English build a
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