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HIS263 October 18 - The War of 1812.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Bohaker/ Penfold

HIS263 October 18, 2012 The War of 1812 i. Preparation for War ii. Casus belli iii. Campaigns and Casualties iv. Aftermath of War - A war between Britain and the US o Fought principally in Upper Canada o The US sought to enter Upper Canada with a view of taking it over o Last major war fought by a confederacy of Ohio Valley and Great Lakes First Nations  First Nations—fought for the British to protect their land - Part of the Napoleonic wars in Europe o Napoleon rises to power o Watches France on a series of wars to which England responds - First Nations both won and lost o Won many battles o The victory they won did not end up in a buffer state—no independent homeland - Multiple significance of the war—last time the US invades Canada I. Preparing for War - Lieutenant-Governor Simcoe’s plans - End of American Revolution—Loyalists come into what is now Canada o 1791—Colony of Upper Canada established o John Graves Simcoe—Lieutenant-Governor o Wanted to create a colony that is a model of Britain o At the same time, getting ready for the war o British did not believe the American Revolution was going to last o Moved the capital of the colony to York o Much of Upper Canada named after parts/people in Britain - Settlements were moved away from the waterfront to encourage people to move towards the interior - 1794—5000 men in the colonial mission (men 16-50) o Had to provide their own weapons, but it was a start to colonial defense - Governors did not necessarily have Simcoe’s vision of defense o Simcoe leaves 1797 o However his plans help prepare for the war of 1812 - Indigenous allies and the British Indian Department o Presents, gifts, feasts used for alliances  Ensured their commitment to Britain o Complicated by realities of revolution in the US o US government continues to fight in what is the now the US - Massive victory in Ohio Valley—defeat of American troops o 900 American casualties o 1794—government retaliates  Defeated Aboriginal allies o British, maintaining Fort Miami recognize the political problem o Britain wants to maintain their aboriginal alliances - Many British officers had taken First Nations wives o This maintains ties, as well - 1802—Isaac Brock assigned to Upper Canada o Given job of military administration o Recognizes the weak military o Build up fo
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