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1812 & Awakening of American Nationalism.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Erin Black

1812 & Awakening of Nationalism 10/17/2012 2:52:00 PM Review  Federalism & Anti-Federalism  Support for national bank  Whether or not we need a bill of rights  Thomas Jefferson’s Presidency o Emphasis on foreign affairs o Not president in 1812—Madison is. I. Origins of 1812  Underlying Causes o Napoleonic Wars  France & England are back at war in 1803, with each side warning the USA not to aid the other side—don’t trade.  George Washington issued a statement of neutrality in the first conflict— can trade with either power. o Neurtrality  Trade with anyone  Rights of neutrals also included freedom to the seas—access to the Atlantic without being harassed by European Navies  American shippers were benefitted—extensive trade.  Successful re-export trade in tropical produce with France.  The US merchant marines became quite large due to success in shipping.  Britain is watching this with hopes of getting into the markets of Latin America, which the US is thriving off of. o Rich, Atlantic Trade  Benefitting French too—pissing off British  Offering support to British deserters  Louisiana’s purchase from the French—puts money to France’s war efforts, expands america’s influence on the contienent. o 1805—Stalemante  France has the contienent by 1805  Britain controls the seas.  Continental System—issued by Napoleon  Britain—American ships must stop at Britain to be inspected for war goods (will be confiscated), if not, the sailors must purchase liscences to trade further.  Any vessel complying with the French blockade would be seized by France—retort to the British blockades o Jefferson  This violates our rights—neither side cares.  Harassment at Sea (Impressment) (Embargo Act, 1807; Non-Intercourse Act, 1808) o British start meeting ships on sea to inspect them to out maneuver French blockade. o Ships holds are cargo are inspected. o British started impressing American sailors into the Navy, claiming them to be deserters. 2500 were taken. Most were not deserters (citizens of USA), some were o Started issuing passports to state that they were American o Britain didn’t care—America is getting harassed. o Leads to the British firing on an American ship, while it was in American territorial waters—taking all the soldiers of deserters o If he went to congress, Jefferson could have declared war—didn’t—knew that the US couldn’t go to war with the Brits, not strong enough o Closes all American ports to the British—Jefferson instructs the British ambassador to seek reparations. o Brits do apologize for the incident, they offer compensation, but the British maintain that they have the right to use force—should it be necessary.  It can happen again, cause we can do this o Jefferson’s choices:  1—War  2—do fuck all  3—Impose a trade sanction on the British—he does this. o Assisted by Madision—greater scale though—embargo not only on British but all nations at war in Europe (Embargo Act 1807) o Rationale: they couldn’t survive the blockade—America absorbed 45% of British exports. o Embargo is also similar to the revolutionary strategy of non-consumption—past practice example. o Changes since revolutions  America has one of the world’s largest merchant marines  Prosperity to eastern seaboard and inner parts of the entire continent— gonna hurt the US economy too  1808—US trade plummeted 80%  Exports dropped dramatically. o Jefferson stayed because he hoped it was hurting them o Before leaving office, he realizes this has done more harm than good. o Replaces it with Non-intercourse Act (1808)  Trade with all European nations SANS Britain & France o Succeeded by James Madison. o Only supposed to be two years (the intercourse act) o 1810—American economy still sucks; when it expires, he lets it. o Restores commerce with both BUT if one repeals their blockade/stops harassment, we’ll stop trading with the other o France revokes its measures against shipping first—Madison blockades trade with the British o Britain continues to harass US shipping (Impression & Seizure) o US is concurrently having trouble with the Natives—blame it on the British.  Troubles with Native Americans (Tenskwatawa; Tecumseh) o First shots of 1812 are fird in the Trans-appelation frontier o Approx 53 treaties of land succession were signed between Indians and US (1800- 1810) o Millions of acres in land for economic support o As US Surges, so does its nececcity for land. o Indiana—1600 people in 1800  1810—its 24,000  1820—over 150,000 o Indians lose land based on deby o Resentment leads to resistance—in 1805—Tenskwatawa—emerged from a vision— reject white influence—cease contact with whites and stop using their goods other than firearms for defense  Messgae spreads because his brother is TECUMSEH!—brother condemned all past treaties as invalid  Wanted to unite all tribes against America as a confederation. o US Milita dispearses all the followers and eliminates the Tecumseh followers—finds british wepons—they were egging them on to attack us!  They were older weapons, but theseed is planted—British caused this unrest with the natives o Warhawks in Congress—advocate war  Sick of this shit  Condescending behaviour for the US—trying to cause unrest.  Mad at Madison’s attempts at diplomacy  Push for war  Starts in 1810, madison gives in on 1812  When Britain CONVENIENTLY repeals the blockade of harassment—war is declared.  War message lists unfair trade violations as the main reason for war—June 1812—violation of sovereignty.  Secondary: British egging on Natives, causing civil disruption & continued occupation of British forts on the western front. o Why at this point would they declare war?—1812  -Unacknowledged Causes o Political  Problems with republican party—Madison hadn’t been the unanimous choice for the 1808 election—New England hates him.  Party fragmentation  1812—election year, more opposition for republicans—war is used to unite American people, secure nomination for 1812 election.  Wants his party to stay together, uses war as an excuse o Economic  British Canada is targeted  Britsh are egging them on form Canada  Britain has started to look (during embargo act) to its colonies as an alternative for resources bought from the USA.  Move on Canada to secure market trade. II. Impact of War at Home  Economic o Economy is broken by embargos. o In a depression by this point—trade killed, massive inflaction, economy stops. o Prior to the war, the economic malaise led to the war, but it sparks economic development in other areas. o Jefferson is an enforcer of agrarianism.  Opens door to change in American economy to machine-based production that is domestic  Domestic industrialization—textile mills.  Internal manufacturing base  1807-1810 # of textile plants go from 10 to a lot more…like 80.  Political o Although there was enough support for war, the American public was divided by the merits of this war o Federalists—against war, final straw of breaking away from Britain o New England—SUPER PISSED. Rhode Island, COnneticut refuse to commit their militias for the national army o All New England states meet in 1814 and discuss leaving the Union o Hartford Convention 1814 → Nullification  New England debates withdrawing from the USA  Decide that succession would be too extreme—argues that an individual state group ahs the right to interpose its will to protect itself rom unconstitutional laws.  The Supreme court not only has the right to cancel laws, the states can too if its unconstitutional—foreshadows civil war.  War ends—while the war created such division, leads to intense nationalism  Nationalism (at war’s end) o Mass feeling of patriotism—despite stalemate. o British forces succeeded in Burning down the white house and most of Washington. o Only won one major battle—major victory after the war ironically. o After two years of stalemate, diplomacy ensues. o For the US, ray of light comes with the BATTLE OF NEW ORLEANS (1815)  Andrew Jackson leads American troops to victory  Irony is that the war was technically over—news just hadn’t reached the continent.  Looks like the war needs due to American victory—treaty as a result of win.  Didn’t lose anything really, the Britsh could have rolled over America but was preoccupied with Napoleon’s demise.  “Second American Revolution”—we kicked their ass again!  NOW the British are leaving the forts in the Western frontier  Cozy relationship develops.  White House—symbol of Nationalism  Star spangled banner is written during the war of 1812 by Francis Scott
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