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#2: Settling In.pdf

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Professor Candace Sobers

SETTLING IN THE ENGLISH COLONIES, 1607-1700 INTRODUCTION :THE E MPIRE S TRIKES F ORTH •Three broad cultural groupings that end up in the Americas — African, Amerindian, and European •1600 — the Spanish are the dominant colonial force in the entire world, but this doesn’t last long •In the beginning this idea of there being Americas was inconvenient — an obstruction to Asia •European Empires initially didn’t want anything to do with the Americas — expensive, people die too often, and not worth it The English wanted to catch up — they were falling behind Spain • T HE E NGLISH W ORLD W IDENS : ROANOKE ENGLAND UNDER ELIZABETH I •England starts to change with the ascension of Elizabeth I, 1558-1603 •Under Elizabeth Protestantism becomes more Protestant — she defends the faith •England is changing very rapidly •England’s arch enemy is not France, but Spain — the crusading Catholic kingdom that is their biggest aggravation •Elizabeth is trying to build England as an empire that can act as a counterpart to Spain •They needed a lot of money, so they legalize piracy — these individuals harry Spanish treasures •The Drake Jewel is an example of how England is changing •Spanish Armada, 1588 — the English defeat the Spanish against all odds •Interpreted as divine intervention — the Protestant Winds •Proved that Spain was not invincible •Leads to a rise of English nationalism and pride This is where England, as we know it, began • •1576 — After their success with the Spanish Armada they colonize Ireland •Subjected the Irish to massacres in the name of England, Protestantism, and civilization •In England there exists a wealth merchant class, but there is still immense poverty •16 century — population boom •Enclosures — land taken away from the common and given to the gentry, • This means that there is an increased vagrant population — impress colonialism upon thImpress refers to the act of forcing specific individuals FAILURE ATR OANOKE in a Nation’s army or navy. •Sir Walter Raleigh lands in the Americas and names they, this meant criminals. territory Virginia, after the Virgin Queen •Roanoke starts as a small fort town in Virginia in which to prepare for battle against the Spanish SETTLING IN THE ENGLISH COLONIES, 1607-1700 •Half the men on the voyage were impressed (criminals) or gentlemen — these are people that do not have or know the necessary skills to survive •Seek the natives, Roanoke, to help them — help them for a short period •Another voyage carrying more settlers lands in Roanoke •Governor leaves and returns in 1590 — everyone dies •Some think the neighboring enemies killed everyone •By 1590 — Virginia is a disaster, there is not a single survivor in the colony •They don’t want to try again, but they do! •With the end of Elizabeth’s reign, James I ascends the British throne •Not considered to be a good monarch — relies on divine right of king •A generation of English who want to leave England for religious reasons S ETTLING N : THE E NGLISH C OLONIES JAMESTOWN , 1607 •Begins as a for-profit venture Joint-stock company • •They don’t know what this colony will offer, but think it will offer something substantial •Didn’t send people who knew what they were doing — a similar group of people as in Roanoke (people who know little, but expected a lot) •Jamestown is more inland, in order to escape the Spanish — protects them from the Spanish, but gives way to a whole manner of disease •The colonialists are all men and arrive too late to plant anything •Sea Venture — the Tempest •This ship was supposed to bring provisions •It gets shipwrecked in Barbados -- they never got their provisions •This happens during the Starving Time The Starving Time • •Only 39 of the settlers survive — people were starving •Captain John Smith takes control as the president of the colony — motto: “if you don’t work, you don’t eat” •Wants the British to send aid and provisions •1609 — more people are sent, but people still starved •The settlers were so unprepared •Relations with Powhatan Confederacy •This is the only other reason the people survived •They call their land tsenacommacah — Densely inhabited land •When the settlers of Jamestown land, they land in Powhatan •The Powhatan thought these people were going to trade •Pocahontas — the story is fake, the English like the idea of Natives wanting to help the British survive •Her real name is Matoaka •She is held hostage for a year SETTLING IN THE ENGLISH COLONIES, 1607-1700 • She didn’t marry John Smith, but John Rolfe • She is not a noble princess — she is more a woman who is suffering from a plight • The Peace of Pocahontas • The idea of the good idea is an important concept to American history • 1624 — becomes a Royal Colony • Virginia has once again proven to be disastrous — the only thing that saves them is tobacco • Gets enough money to become a colony • Tobacco is incredibly labor intensive — you are going to need labor, start importing African Slaves, in a little while P LYMOUTH , 1620
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