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#4: Breaking the Bonds .pdf

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Professor Candace Sobers

BREAKING THE BONDS THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, 1622-1776 INTRODUCTION : BEING B RITISH , BECOMING AMERICAN ? •Not a chain of events, but a variety •Changing colonies •Rising wealth •Rising consumerism •Rising literacy and education •The Enlightenment •Emphasis on science •Circulating in Europe and colonies •Benjamin Franklin is the epitome of the colonial gentleman •Inventor of electricity, stove (refined), bifocals •Example of how the colonists are adhering to the educated, enlightened tradition •Rising confidence •They begin to feel more confident in themselves because of their achievements T ENSION #1: C OLONIAL S OCIETY BACON ’SR EBELLION, 1676 •Landed gentry have access to the land •They use indentured servants •There was no land to give them, so they take over the natives’ land Bacon feels that the governor is not doing enough •Bacon forms a collection of people and goes on a rampage — attacks people, sets • Jamestown on fire •Bacon dies during the rebellion •Shows the tensions between the haves and the have nots and tensions between the colonists and representatives of the Crown STONO S LAVER EBELLION, 1739 •A slave decides he doesn’t want to be a slave anymore — kills a few people •The rebels were killed — to deter others from rebelling •This is the largest rebellion until the Revolution in Haiti — very hard, but they continue individual acts of rebellion •Shows that the colonies are not perfect places — there are problems under the surface T ENSION #2: B ETWEEN C OLONISTS AND N ATIVES JAMESTOWN M ASSACRE , 1622 •Openchancanough takes over as chief of the Powhatan tribe •Fights between settlers and natives — the new chief kills the entire town of Jamestown •This makes the settlers more aggressive in their acquisition of Indian land BREAKING THE BONDS THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, 1622-1776 •Leads to a series of wars and conflicts between the two parties’ PEQUOT W AR , 1634-8 •Takes place in Mass. Bay and Plymouth •Indians decided to make alliance with the Europeans — the Pequots ally with the Dutch, the English with the rival tribe •The colonists massacre the pequot nation •The Pequot nation is destroyed — survivors are sold into slavery •The Mystic Massacre, 1637 K INGP HILI’SW AR , 1675-8 •The war was the single bravest calamity in Puritan New England •King Philip (Indian name: Metacomet) is a chief of the Wampanoag confederacy •The problem is that the Europeans are taking their land and converting/ assimilating the Indians •Metacomet is dragged before the colonies because there are rumors that he is planning an attack •The man who ratted Metacomet out is found dead — another wave of wars •Shows that the battle over land is living and well; and that in order to face Indian attacks, the colonists need support from Britain T ENSIONS #3: B ETWEEN C OLONY AND E MPIRE •1750s — even by this point, the colonists are still pleased to be part of the British empire •The King is King George II followed by King George III •King George III had an illness — likely that he had a blood disorder The “Join, or Die” Poster — a cartoon done by B. Franklin • •Call a meeting in Albany — included delegates from the colonies and the Iroquois •They want to develop the Ohio Valley • The problem is that Ohio Valley is Indian territory • The British suspect that if themselves, the French, and the Indians are vying for this territory there is going to be war •Franklin proposes a union among the colonies — to unify so that they could be a stronger part of the Empire •Franklin was concerned because the colonists seems to fractured, to be a more effective force •Georgia is not part of the poster — they are worried that they are going to fight the Spanish, not ready to deal with the British BREAKING THE BONDS THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION, 1622-1776 •1754 — Franklin proposes a tighter union of the colonies and Empire THE S EVEN Y EARS ’ WAR , 1754-1763 •The first global war •This is what starts the American Revolution •This conflict is the fourth conflict between European powers since 1689 •The discussion of the Albany Plan erupts into full-scale war between the French and English •Battle between French and English over control of North America — by the end, France is taken out of North America •All French territory west of the Mississippi is given to Spain for compensation for helping the British The French are not upset about losing Canada — because the colonies they gained • were sugar rich, Canada produced very little for them •Colonists have also been called to fight on the side of the British — not happy at the way they are treated •The problems: the war was so expensive, the Crown needs to come up with revenue quickly; what to do with the land they have just gained from the French •After the Peace of Paris of 1763 the British hold the line — they don’t know what they are going to do next •While holding the line, the issue the Royal Proclamation — tell the colonists not to settle past the line of the newly acquired land M AJOR P ROBLEMS : TRADE , AXATION ,AND LAND •1763 — Britain’s National debt is triple what it was •One way to raise revenue is to try to increase taxation rates by regulating trade •They have tried to regulate trade before •Royal Proclamation, 1763 •1763 — the average British citizen payed 26 shillings/year in taxes, the “Americans” payed 1 shilling/year •They are paying very little •By putting in more taxes, they are balancing the levels — they are paying there fair share NAVIGATIONA CTS, 1651 •Foreign vessels cannot transport British goods •They try to control trade •Meant that if you wanted to import something you had to import it
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