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#5: These United States.pdf

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Professor Candace Sobers

THESE UNITED STATES CREATING A NATION, 1777-1800 INTRODUCTION : W IN THE W AR , W IN THE P EACE •Delegates from each of the colonies meet at the continental congresses •The Articles of Confederation are a means to establish rules for the new nation •No president in the beginning •Wanted Canada to join -- might be oppressed under the British Empire A RTICLES OF C ONFEDERATION , 1777 Name: the United States • •Congress has no power to tax or enforce laws •Unicameral legislature: no judiciary, no executive branches •Congress: foreign affairs, war, relations with Indians, debts from Revolution •States agree to never violate the Union •each States has its own sovereignty, but is a member of the Union •You’ve created a government, but have not given yourself the authority to enforce anything, raise money •There is no supreme court TREATY OF PARIS , 1783 •Cornwallis surrenders at York Town •Britain recognizes US as an independent nation •Britain agrees to remove all troops from US soil Sets territorial boundaries between British colonies, America, Spanish colonies • Americans get a lot of land from this treaty • •The biggest losers are the indians -- they have no consent •US agrees to return POWs •US agrees not to persecute loyalists •1776 -- 1/10 of the population was agitated •If you are not a patriot after the Revolution you can find it very difficult to continue living in America •Slaved people do not do well under the Treaty either -- very difficult for them •The larger populations of freed blacks makes the northerns very nervous -- this isn’t a problem in the south because there aren’t many freed blacks •No discussion of women -- do not put such unlimited power in the hands of the men •Why did Britain lose? •Americans had support from France •British didn’t make good use of the loyalist T HE U NFINISHED R EVOLUTION : THE CONSTITUTION P ROBLEMS F ACING THE N EW R EPUBLIC •Land disputes between States/Spain and US/Britain and US •Debt and taxation •Articles of confederation created a way of not getting any real money THESE UNITED STATES CREATING A NATION, 1777-1800 •congress can’t impose taxes -- planning to make money off this new land they got in the war SOCIAL DISORDER AND DEFENSE •The period after a conflict is often the worst period -- things become very difficult SHAY S REBELLION,1786-7 The fact that congress can’t tax was very important -- individual states did the taxes • themselves •When Mass. goes to collect debts from farmers -- they insist it be backed by a hard metal, rather than paper •Farmers who do not pay-up risk confiscation •3000 farmers under the leadership of Daniel Shay -- refuse to pay taxes Government of Mass. turns on the farmers -- declares these people to be in rebellion • •Rebellion was put down quickly •This depicts the threats present in a new country -- makes you uncomfortable •Try to increase the federal army -- doesn’t work BARBARY PIRATES The new nation is threatened -- surrounded by empires and pirates • •Coasts are being harassed by pirates (Burbur Pirates) •The pirates have been around since the 1600s -- now, America no longer has the British navy to help defend the territory from pirates C ONSTITUTIONAL CONVENTION •These are the issues that go into the reconvening of the constitution -- the Articles aren’t enough •When reconvening, the men present had many different allegiances •James Madison, delegate of Virginia -- planned of three branches of government, two chamber legislature, proportional representation This is known as the Virginia Plan • •More votes depending on how many people live in a specific state •While this plan angers a lot of people, he is able to set the agenda •The New Jersey plan -- the biggest difference between this and Madison’s is that there is a 3 person presidency and faster rotation THE UNITEDS TATESC ONSTITUTION ARTICLE 1 •Defines the 3 branches, includes power of Congress •Layout the powers of congress •Legislative branch -- representative for 2 years (Congressmen) •Who counts in the census? -- not just rich, white men with property Northern states have more rich white men with property -- the South has less, but • more people THESE UNITED STATES CREATING A NATION, 1777-1800 • The South argues that slaves should count in the enumeration of the population, but not vote -- 3/5 clause Slaves count for 3/5 of a person • • Just using them for numbers • Works well for the southern states -- more political clout, than if they didn’t use them • No mention of slavery -- but there is a piece (1.9) that says that the Slave trade will end in 1807 A RTICLE4 • States honor the laws of other states; enshrines a republican government A RTICLE5 • Procedure for amending the Constitution • 9 out of 13 colonies have to approve on something for it to be passed B ILL OR IGHTS • 1 -- freedom of assembly, religion • 2nd-- right to bear arms, form militias • 5 -- due to process, habeas corpus • 8 -- no cruel and unusual punishment 10 -- powers not granted to the federal government belong to the States • SENATE • Each state gets 2, no matter the population size • The shape of the US government • The new congress can collect taxes and duties Regulate everything international • • Congress gets to declare war and appropriate money for war • Has the ability to call militias to suppress rebellions • The elastic clause -- allows congress to make laws that are necessary and profitable • This is the clause that prompts the strict construction of the constitution -- that means you can only do what is listed on the constitution • Loose constitutionalist is someone who believes that if it is not listed, but necessary for government, this is where this clause comes in PRESIDENT • 4-year terms (no t
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