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#7: Antebellum America, PT 1.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Professor Candace Sobers

ANTEBELLUM AMERICA, 1820S-1840S INTRODUCTION : ANTEBELLUM A MERICA SNAPSHOT :TERRITORY AND DEMOGRAPHY •50 million inhabitants -- majority are white, rural, and Protestant •1828 -- 24 states •Population is doubling every 23 years •African Americans will be native born -- 20% of the population •Free blacks in the North and unfree in the South •Slave population is dropping because of the hardship of slavery •Immigration will change the US -- 9 million by 1820 •The country is expanding rapidly T HE A GE OF J ACKSON THE C ORRUPT B ARGAIN AND THER ISE OFJACKSON •By 1824 there is still only one party, the Republic-Democratic party •Jackson is the representative from the state of Tennessee •1824 -- neither one of the four candidates get an electoral college majority •John Quincy Adams received the presidency •1828 -- rematch •Jackson has spent the last four years cultivating the common man -- they come out in full force and give Jackson the presidency •Sometimes called the “1828 Revolution” -- the revolution of the common man •They expect him to be their champion • Jackson is a tumulus character and has a violent legacy -- gives him the nickname “Old Hickory” •All the presidents up until this period were Washington elites, not Jackson •Wants to remove all Indians from areas where whites have established themselves THE SECOND PARTY SYSTEM •Fragmentation in office •Removes everyone who was loyal to Adams and puts his friends •Jackson supports become the Democratic party •Anti-Jackson supporters are the Whigs •This the second party system -- there are two parties INDIANR EMOVAL , 1830 •Many have already been moved out through a series of treaties •Southeast there are still many tight Indian societies •The constitution gives the president right to deal with foreign nationals -- Jackson didn’t want to think of them of as a foreign state, but rather a dependent entity within the state ANTEBELLUM AMERICA, 1820S-1840S • Foreign national means you have rights, whereas Jackson’s title means they have no sovereign rights • He has a long history of being an Indian fighter -- in battle he forces a tribe to sign over 20,000 acres to America • Looks at Indians occupying land as going to waste -- believes he can make proper use of it • Also lacks respect for Indians -- there are often movements to civilize the indians • Comes into his presidency being an Indian fighter -- this is why he is voted in! • Wants to get federal approval to move them out of occupied areas • An exchange -- federal government will give Indians money and material assistance in exchange for their voluntary removal to an unincorporated territory (what will become Oklahoma) forever, but that territory becomes a state later on This would be better for the Indians because they were harassed in many states • • The act passes -- but many Northerners are appalled • Congress approves $500,000 for this project • By the end of his presidency he signed over 70 removal orders • The triumph of states’ rights CHEROKEES • The five civilized tribes -- Cherokee, Choctaw, Creek, Chickasaw, Seminole • Cherokee did everything the broader society told them to do, but always failed The Cherokee nation is in the state of Georgia, and Georgians want them out -- but • the Cherokees have rights to these territories • 1831 -- Cherokee nation takes the state of Georgia to the Supreme court • Justice Marshall rules that Cherokee is not independent, but dependent wards of the state • This means they have no standing -- they cannot try their case • They don’t stop -- hire an American lawyer to go to court for them • State laws do not trump treaty rights • Georgia feels safe ignoring this because Jackson would agree Harassment continues -- some members of the council sign a treaty ceding their land • • Given 2 years to remove themselves or they will be forcibly extracted • Trail of tears -- marched from their territory to the unincorporated territory • Suffered in silence across the territory THE NULLIFICATION C RISIS, 1832 • Henry Clay had proposed a 3 tier system to speed up the American economy -- building roads, etc. • When Jackson was a senator in 1824 he though these things were very important • But, when he entered office and his supporters do not support this system he changed his tune • Turns against the national bank • Renew the charter for the bank early because it will cause an election issue ANTEBELLUM AMERICA, 1820S-1840S •Jackson vetoes the bank’s ability to renew its charter •Makes the secretary of the treasury take out all the money of the bank -- only the 3 secretary agrees and distributes the money to state banks •The public thinks this is wonderful because the depression hasn’t hit yet •The state banks do not have hard money to backup the money -- caused the Panic of 1839 •The second part of the American system was tariffs -- they thought the tariffs favored everyone over the South •Southerners are upset that he has not done anything •Split between president and vice-president •VP leaves his post and fights for state’s rights as senator •State’s rights have a limit -- South Carolina (SC) is going to nullify them SC issues the ordinance of nullification -- says that tariffs are unjust and thus a • state has the power to nullify tariffs if they believe it is unconstitutional •Almost leads to a civil war -- he has fostered rebellious states •Jackson has to go to Congress to ready the armed forces to force them to adopt the tariffs -- almost come
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