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#10: The Blue and the Gray.pdf

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University of Toronto St. George
Professor Candace Sobers

THE BLUE AND THE GRAY THE CIVIL WAR, 1861-1865 INTRODUCTION : THE S ECESSIONIST W INTER •The war was not inevitable -- there were a lot of compromises made before the war breakout •Buchanan’s “lame duck” presidency •He has got a couple months where he is still president, but doesn't have the authority •Wants to negotiate with Lincoln -- wants to amend the constitution, but Lincoln says no •Crittenden Compromise • December, 1860 •Crittenden, Senator from Kentucky, wants to amend the constitution -- wants to extend the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific •With this the federal government cannot interfere •Lincoln is comfortable with this, but not with slavery extending into Southern California •South Carolina’s Ordinance of Secession, 1860 •Declaration of the Confederacy, February. 1861 •Lincoln’s First Inaugural, March 1861 By this time, most of the South has succeeded • •Promises is not to touch slavery — what he wants is the Confederate states to return the federal institutions they had taken over •Agrees to let slavery continue, if the confederate states would just heed his demands •Lincoln and the United States of America never recognize the Confederacy as independent •The war is born out of Lincoln’s authority to put down rebellions in the country -- he sees the South as in rebellion, but the South seems themselves as independent •That is why there is no formal declaration of war -- it is more of a giant rebellion •Fort Sumter, April 1861 Cherokees identify with the Confederacy • •At the beginning the war is announced as a war for states’ rights, not slavery THE BLUE AND THE GRAY THE CIVIL WAR, 1861-1865 A T THE FRONT L INES : FIGHTING THE C IVIL W AR BALANCE OF FORCES •In almost every possible way, the Union has the advantage •More industry, more money, more railroads, more manufacturing, more food to feed their population, more states, larger population -- they have more assets By the end of the war, the Union will have mobilized 2 million troops as opposed to • 800,000 troops •The South does have some advantages -- they are fighting a defensive war •Fought on their home turf -- which means they know the terrain much better •They only have to hold out long enough for the North to lose its will •Military similarities •Union •President: A. Lincoln •Capital: Washington, DC. •Generals: Ulysses S. Grant, William Sherman •Confederacy •President: J. Davis •Capital: Montgomery, AB; Richmond, VA •Generals: Robert E. Lee, Stonewall Jackson •If you are the confederacy, you just moved your capital not too far from Washington -- what you want to do is have a big victory quickly and install yourself in the capital The same could be said for the Union • TWO T HEATERS, ONEW AR •Eastern Theater: Virginia •Western Theater: Tennessee •Each side has two armies fight on each front •Was this the first modern war? Large armies supported by industry and manufacturing -- yes •They also used trenches! •Total War -- breaks the society, not just the army CAUSALITIESM OUNT •No one expected such a great loss and carnage -- similar to WWI •The Union does much better in the West, than in the East B EHIND THE LINES AFRICAN-A MERICANS THEC ONFEDERACY •The most precarious and sensitive situation •Some free blacks agree to fight for the confederacy in exchange for freedom after the war in the case that the confederacy wins THE BLUE AND THE GRAY THE CIVIL WAR, 1861-1865 • Some escape and join the Union forces based in the south • Slaves do not work as they did before the war -- there is no more administrative system THE UNION • In the North, free blacks rush to enlist -- they couldn’t because there was a law banning black people from owning arms • Lincoln administration deals with the issue of whether blacks should join the war -- worried it will incite racial tensions in the border states (states that were slave-states, but stayed with the Union) CONTRABANDS OW AR • If you were a union general and you encountered slaves, you had to return them to their masters in the South • 1861 -- Benjamin Butler declares that he will confiscate slaves that he encounters and will consider them contraband of war • They would be sent to the North to wait it out • 1861 -- First Confiscation Act The Union passes this law which enable slaves working for the confederacy to • be confiscated -- they would be emancipated so that they don’t help them W OMEN • In some Southern town, there were no white men left -- Women had to take over In the South they took over male jobs, in the North they raised funds • • Women are nurses in war for the first time -- think of the Crimean War • Rise in prostitution • Some women disguised themselves as men to fight in the war G OVERNMENT • The major problem is money -- the war is very expensive • First government to spend a billion dollars in a year! • To come up with money, both sides did anything for money • Both sides ta
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