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University of Toronto St. George
Professor Candace Sobers

THENCEFORTH AND FOREVER FREE? RECONSTRUCTION, 1865-1877 INTRODUCTION : W ITH M ALICE TOWARDS N ONE •The Civil War left a lot of unanswered questions, namely what to do with the Confederacy and the Confederates •Lincoln’s vision of the future was never fulfilled because he had been assassinated •Andrew Johnson has to take over the reigns L INCOLN ’S P LAN , JOHNSON S P LAN PRESIDENTIALR ECONSTRUCTION •The period of between Lincoln and Johnson is known as Presidential Reconstruction LINCOLN •Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, December 1863 •Offers a full pardon to rebels if they renounce the cession and the allow for the emancipation of slaves •10 Percent Plan -- Get 10% of voters in any confederate state, then they get reconstruct their state legislature •Lincoln doesn’t have a long term vision •Abolitionists are outraged by this plan -- think it is too small of a percentage •Republican congress comes up with a plan of their own •Wade-Davis Bill, 1864 •50% of the voters have to agree to take the ironclad oath and renounce secession •Confederate politicians would loss their privileges of citizenship This includes all free man Passes into law, but nothing happens, but, Lincoln never signs it • •Worries that it s too aggressive •Lincoln encourages confederate states to make new governments •They follow the 10% plan -- the Lincoln states, some are still holding out •Lincoln gives his final speech that basically says the confederate states never really seceded because you CANNOT secede from the Union -- they were in a state of rebellion THENCEFORTH AND FOREVER FREE? RECONSTRUCTION, 1865-1877 • Freedman’s Bureau, 1865 Only applies to now freed blacks -- remember slaves have just been emancipated • • Part of the department of war • Setup to get freedman their lives back together • Provides basic assistance • Works to formalize slave marriages • Helps freedman try to find work and education • Sherman’s March to the Sea, Revisited • Freedmen began to attach themselves to Sherman’s battalions • Special Field Order 15, January 1865 • Sherman gave land that they had confiscated to newly freed slaves that had attached to his battalion • More and more freedmen follow the area Sherman is marching wanting land too • When Johnson comes to office all this land is taken back JOHNSON • Radical Republicans -- Stevens and Sumner • Actually believe in the equality of the races, particularly before the law • Thought the south should be punished • Going to get on Johnson’s nerves • He is a Southerner, but hates the Southern Aristocracy -- not interested in freedman or equality • His goal is to readmit the southern states as soon as possible • Believes this is a distraction from bringing the southern states back into the Union • Goes back to Lincoln’s 10% plan -- pardons everyone in the South, except generals and the planter Aristocracy Appoints provisional governors for all of the Confederate states as along as they • renounce their secession and emancipate slaves • The southerners did not like this plan -- many states rejected his plan or re-elected Confederate leaders • Johnson does nothing about this -- by failing to drawing a hardline he emboldened southerns for an even harder resistance • Black Codes passed in each Confederate State after 1865 • Made a mockery of emancipation • For example: cannot sue white people, cannot express legal concern publicly There were strict vagrancy laws -- risk of being pressed back unto plantations • • Orphans were pressed into work back unto plantations • The southern states have basically just overlooked the cause of the Civil War • The Confederate states attacked the Freedman Bureau THENCEFORTH AND FOREVER FREE? RECONSTRUCTION, 1865-1877 P RESIDENT V . CONGRESS C ONGRESSIONAL RECONSTRUCTION •When congress reconvenes in 1865, many people continue to attend Congress is •The war begins when Congress decides to become more assertive against Johnson •Johnson thought the reconstruction was done, but the congress didn’t •Freedman’s Bureau Bill Veto, 1866 •Because the bill was about to expire, congress wishes to extend it because little work was done -- Johnson vetoes the bill because he believes it was preferential treatment to one group of people •Civil Rights Act, 1866 •The civil rights acts nullifies the Black Codes •Compels the confederate states to recognize the civil rights of all freedmen •An end to all legal discrimination •Johnson vetoes this because he believed it was still preferential treatment •His veto is overturned •Fourteenth Amendment, 1868 •Guarantees citizenship to everyone born in the United States of America, expect Natives and children born to immigrants •Guarantees voting rights to all males over 21, other than Natives Women still not get the vote • •Johnson vetoed the amendment because it will give way to anarchy •Southern response •Widespread race riots •The riots shocked many northerners -- turned on Johnson for turning a blind eye •Gives a series of speeches that blame his party -- affect Johnson’s political fortunes •He is going to get himself impeached shortly •First and Second Reconstruction Act, 1867 •Military reconstruction act •Dived the confederacy into 5 military dis
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