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Professor Candace Sobers

CLOSED FRONTIERS, NEW FRONTIERS THE OLDEST WEST AND THE 1898 WARS INTRODUCTION : BEGINNING IN THE 20 CH ENTURY The 20 century is the busiest hundred years in all of human history • th •The 20 century changes the way America changes the way it sees it self and how it acts in the world •Themes: rise of mass culture alongside the cult of individuality, the civil rights movements alongside arise in conservatism, massive immigration alongside anti- immigration legislation, human rights consciousness alongside the bloodiest wars •In the 20 century, the United States of America was involved in 6 wars -- there are always tensions with this G O WEST : THE W EST WAS THE P ROMISE L AND •The American west is anything west of the Mississippi •Three main groups of people who move west after the Civil War: Mormons M ORMONS , MINERS,AND P IONEERS MORMONS Mormons are a religious group -- Smith has a series of visions that lead him to a • series of divine tablets and writes the Book of Mormon •Believes that Jesus walked to the New World after the Resurrection •Christians were not happy with this new denomination -- different from t •Began in Missouri, but became successful in Illinois -- the Nauvoo •Mormon Trail, 1846-1868 •Religious schism in the Mormon church -- Smith is imprisoned for treason •He becomes a martyr, and tells the Mormons that they are not safe in the United States of America • The new leader, Young, decides that he has to move the Mormons out -- to unincorporated Utah territory • Takes nearly a year and settles in the Salt Lake Basin MINERS •By 1849, Gold is discovered in California -- The California Gold Rush •The idea of the Gold Rush is an international event -- people came from all over the world •The miners were known as “49ers” •Turns places from backwaters to boomtowns -- San Francisco population: 200 in 1846 to 86,000 in 1862 •Creates a different version of the American Dream -- Puritans dreamt of a world in which you could work really hard to be rewarded •The Gold Rush made it seem as though you don’t have to work very hard to get rich •People feared that this would change American morals CLOSED FRONTIERS, NEW FRONTIERS THE OLDEST WEST AND THE 1898 WARS •By mid-1850s, big companies come in and use hydraulic equipment •Lead to a lot of conflicts with Natives who lived around California -- the population declines dramatically by 1870 due to violence and disease THE PIONEERS ANDH OMESTEADERS •People who would go out West to buy land •Spurred by the beginning of the end of the Civil War •Homestead Act, 1862 -- a land grant to anybody who has not take up arms against the Union •It had a couple of rules: had to file an application and lived on a designated plot of territory for 5 years, only after improving the land will it be grants •1862 to 1934 -- the Government granted 10% of their land as homestead COWBOYS AND FRONTIERT OWNS •The idea of the open range •Most of the things that are associated with cowboys are Spanish •Cowboys were a romanticized version of the American Dream The idea is is that they move cattle across large swaths of territory • •Ranges closed with the invention of barbed wire •Between 1870 and 1880 more land was used for agricultural purposes •Frontier towns were not as lawless as they are depicted today INTERNATIONALR EPRESENTATION •Very multi-ethnic -- not a Euro-American white world •California becomes the home of 10,000s of Chinese for gold •When the gold was no longer available, the Chinese began opening business, agriculture, and railroads •Because the railroads were very dangerous, many Euro-Americans didn’t want to work on them •Chinese population tended to only work to save up enough money to return home •Chinese workers were treated very poorly -- accused of driving down wages for white workers White workers were paid $35/month plus food and board • •Chinese workers were paid $25/month with no benefits •Increasing violence against Chinese •Pressure on the Federal government to ban Chinese •Issue the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882 CLOSED FRONTIERS, NEW FRONTIERS THE OLDEST WEST AND THE 1898 WARS H OW THE W EST WAS W ON ..AND L OST Plains Indians: Apache, Comanche, ASSIMILATION AND TNDIANW ARS Cheyenne, Navajo, Sioux, etc. •United States of America government had one operating theory: remove the Indians from the American territory and send them to “Indian country” (unincorporated territory) •Becomes an American practices to assimilate Indians to become more Americans -- the idea is that you either become productive members of American society or get executed Agriculture was synonymous with civilization • •The Dawes Severalty Act of 1887 •Give the head of the household for a grant of 160 acres, but can only get the title after 25 years •You have to improve the land in order to receive the American citizenship •Native communities are threatened with the near annihilation of the buffalo THESIOUW ARS •The sioux start having fights with American territory as soon as they show up CLOSED FRONTIERS, NEW FRONTIERS THE OLDEST WEST AND THE 1898 WARS • Sioux warriors decide to attack settlers -- 68 Lakota warriors are executed •1863 -- they are expelled and forced further west •The Treaty of Fort Laramie in 1868 gives the Sioux control of North and South Dakota after the victory of the Red Cloud •This only lasts until 18
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