Class Notes (808,753)
Canada (493,377)
History (3,202)
HIS271Y1 (246)

The Progressives.pdf

5 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Professor Candace Sobers

THE PROGRESSIVES • What it means to be progressive, and how progressivism moves into the foreign policy arena • Intro: the anxieties of modernity • The progressive president: TR and the “Square Deal” • TR in the Caribbean • Social Welfare, Social Justice, Socialism? • “Big Stick” diplomacy • Conclusion: a progressive foreign policy? D EFINING PROGRESSIVISM • the consequences of industrialization and urbanization; losing the sense of the agrarian ideal; with cities comes fears of what cities bring (alcoholism, prostitution etc.); americans are concerned about immigration, what does it mean when the majority of people are not anglo saxons; the closing of the frontier and what do we do now (all this comes to a head in the 1890s) • reform impulse: the idea that you can and should reform society; one of the defining characteristics of american society in general; the idea that they can make things better • social justice and social welfare • activist christianity: idea of rooting their activism in the christian faith; mostly protestants use that as the ideological base to help reform society • government should have a leading role in reform: progressives blv govt and state should have a role in reform • scientism (scientific approaches): with the rise of the social sciences (a new area of the sciences) you get a scientific approach (hence social darwinism as science); • progress-->social, economic, political, moral: the idea that progress is possible; you are not doomed to be poor or illiterate; if everyone works together we can uplift • despite the fact that progressives want changes in american society, they are not revolutionists, they just want to fix what they see wrong in american society. E LECTION OF 1896 • the center of the debate is about money, specifically what should the standard basis of the currency be. Its what the money debate comes to represent. • Green backs: they just started to print money, which leads to inflation • after the war the US goes on the economic expansion; there becomes a debate over whether the US currency should be backed by gold or civil. This becomes the major campaign issue. • Farmers are not making money from crops; whoever wins will promise to restore prosperity in the US; one way to do this is controlling money • big businesses favour gold standard and farmers and labourers favour the silver standard. • The debate is so important that it enters our public consciousness. • Wizard of oz is an allegory for the gold standard controversy: some ppl say that there is a scare crow who represents dissenfranchised farmers, tin man reps american THE PROGRESSIVES steel but the tin man has a hard time competing bc other europeans are producing steel. Tin man has no heart. They are following a yellow brick road (a golden road), heading to OZ (illusion to white city, or washington; its either rockofellar). When you get to the big city you pull the curtain and there is nothing there. Dorothy reps all of america, and the ruby slippers she wears in the movie are silver in the book. The cowardly l,ion (william jenning brian); he is an up and coming political official, he's sort of a dark horse, he's not really one to watch until he runs for the democratic nomination. “Thought shalt not crusify the nation on a cross of gold” (the cross of gold speech). Brian takes a risk; this was bordering on sac religion and he took the risk, but he won the democratic nomination. The democrats now support free silver many countries had silver backing their currency • • its a hard fought election and Mckinley wins: he wins bc he's got the clout--money and important people--behind him • republicans-william McKinley's • democrats-william jennings bryan • mckinley wins • but WJB will be back... • Mckinley wins and then gets assassinated 6 months later by Leon Czolgosz (an anarchist) T HE PROGRESSIVE PRESIDENT (T HEODORE R OOSEVELT ); • focussed a lot on tariffs but had not done a lot • populism: control over big business etc. Teh democrats take these sort of things up; when T. Roosevelt enters presidency there is no reason to blv he will approach these issues diffirently; which in fact he does, becoming the leader fo the progressive movement • T.R was inspired by Muck Breakers (early investigator reportists), he refers to them in a speech where in the beginning he speaks against them and in the end he takes on the muck • he was also the governor of New York and became committed to the idea of social welfare; the idea that he shoul improve his position to help the poor • he believes in the power of focus and change; he decided to go to the gym and make his body strong; “The Streneous Right.” he blvs in the power of transformation. He also reps the contradiction of the age: he thinks of progressive ideals and on the other end he was a racist and believed in the superiority of anglo saxons • his first wife and his mom died on the same day and so he gives his daughter to his sister to raise and becomes a cowboy in the dakota's, where he realized that there was no big game there to hunt for. This lead into conservation and preserving America's natural environment. • inter-state regulatory act (regulated railroads) • the square deal: regulating business, conservation, and consumer protection • the antiquities act: a federal agency that has the right to manage public land if the have historical or public backing (hence “yellow stone”) • regulating bug businesses: he was often known as the trust buster THE PROGRESSIVES • trust busting: the board of directors of big industries pulled their shares into one monopoly; but the trusts had begun to symbolize the power of big business, and the power of businesses to control govt. Ppl were starting to feel helpless in the collusion btwn govt and big business • “the history of the standard oil company” • Roosevelt was going to go after the 33 major trusts.he gets the reputation of a trust buisters but he goes aftrer those businesses that violate the law. He sees govt as the leader of progressivism so he relies less on congress for approval. • coal strike of 1902: this was a major strike; roosevelt wants to intervene in this strike; this strike is important bc coal is not only running industry but its also heating homes, which is important for the winter time. Roosevelt threatens to use troops to seize the mines and run them himself. He also starts an arbitration committee (the first time that the govt intervenes in the labour strike as a third party) • coal man strike • elkins and hepburn acts (1903, 1906): these are acts which ammend an earlier interstate congress act; and the govt intervense if they dont give equal rates to people; these combine to give the govt control of the railroads. Roosevelt takes on the railroad baring, which makes him a hero to some. • conservation • beginning of national parks and sanctuaries •
More Less

Related notes for HIS271Y1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.