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World War One.pdf

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Professor Candace Sobers

THE WAR TO END ALL WARS AMERICA AND WORLD WAR ONE INTRODUCTION : PROGRESSIVES IN POWER •The period between 1900 and 1914 as the internationalization of America and the Americanization of the world •1899 -- the United States of America has Guam, Philippines and Hawaii •The purchase was fraught •The paradox of empire -- how do you establish yourself as a republic and yet seek to compete with the great powers •Justification: Americans will be better tutors •Roosevelt is replaced by Taft in 1909 Taft is a progressive in his own way, but not in the way that Roosevelt likes • O PEN DOOR NOTES , 1899 •The Americans begin to look abroad to China -- the China Market •End up opening the Chinese Market through the Open Door Notes of 1899 •Even though the Americans don’t have a concession in China -- the United States of America becomes stronger because has Pacific holdings •John Hay writes a series of letters to the imperial powers -- to make sure that everyone respects the sovereignty of China and no one has preferential treatment •Hay does this because he is scared •The Imperial powers ignored the Open Door Notes, but it shows that Americans are trying to gain access to great markets and behave like a great power •The Notes seemed like a very noble thing to do PANAMA C ANAL , 1903 •Meanwhile in Latin America, Theodore Roosevelt (TR) TR believes that American should being using its special power in the entire • world, especially in Latin American •Americans sought to protect China and gain access •By 1903, the American need somewhere in Central America to build a canal to unite the Atlantic and Pacific oceans •1901 -- they decide to build this canal at Panama •However Panama is part of Colombia and Colombia has commissioned France to build the canal •TR goes to Colombia to try to force Colombia in signing the canal over to the United States of America Colombians do not sign • •TR agrees to help the people of Panama get independence in exchange for the canal •When Panama receives it’s independence, the United States of America receives the Canal in 1903 THE R OOSEVELT C OROLLARY , 1904 •By 1904, the Monroe Doctrine was adjusted by TR THE WAR TO END ALL WARS AMERICA AND WORLD WAR ONE •The Roosevelt Corollary takes responsibility for everywhere in Latin America and the Caribbean •If the peoples native to these areas are wreaking havoc, it is the duty of the Americans to come in a quell dissent or its potential •This has to do with the idea that the United States of America has a responsibility with reordering the world -- this is internalized ELECTION OF 1912 •Republican, William Howard Taft; Progressive, TR; Socialist, Eugene Debs; Democratic, Woodrow Wilson •Wilson wins! -- he couldn’t be anymore different from TR •Wilson is more interested in the domestic sphere, than the international sphere W ILSOA DMINISTRATION •Wilson’s New Freedom •Business and Economics Reforms • Revenue Act, 1913 • 16 Amendment, 1913 • Federal Trade Act, 1914 Federal Reserves • •Labour Reforms • Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, 1911 •A large building that operates as a sweatshop •The building goes up in flames, taking 146 women with it •Most of the women were recent immigrants •It scandalized American labor •Help leads to things like Worker’s Compensation • Department of Labor, 1913 • Workmen’s Compensation, 1916 •Wilson is very busy at home, but he has to divert his attention to what is going on Europe Wilson wants to distinguish himself from TR -- to give a more moderate tone he • appoints a pacifist to his cabinet A W ORLD M ADE S AFE FOR D EMOCRACY : AMERICA AT W AR 1910 -- Mexico has a revolution • •Wilson feels that the Mexican Revolution makes border States uncomfortable •Wilson wants to teach them to appoint “right” men •Wilson is ignoring what is going on Europe THE WAR TO END ALL WARS AMERICA AND WORLD WAR ONE P USHES FOR W AR • When war breaks out, Wilson declares American neutrality -- in thought as well as in action • Neutrality Declaration, August 1914 • This is a hard thing to do when your populations come from the countries that are fighting • By neutrality, Wilson means he wishes to continue trading with both sides • Britain begins to blockade Germans -- United States of America protests because they should be able to trade if they want to • British ignores this Submarines are really difficult at this point -- you cannot engage in any formal • diplomatic banter with a submarine (you can’t see them) • 1915 -- this comes ahead with the sinking of the Lusitania, a passenger vessel • No one believed that submarines would attack civilian ships, even though they were warned • The Lusitania creates a rift in society -- to fight or not to fight • Wilson tries to steer a middle course -- writes to Germany to stop blowing up civilian ships • Germany doesn’t want the United States of America in the war -- they’re powerful The Lusitania was not a neutral vessel, it was carrying munitions for Britain in its holds • • Wilson’s pacifist member resigns and a Robert Lansing takes his position (he is not neutral) • American Union Against Militarism -- people begin to protest the advent of war • Women are coming more and more to the fore as peace activists -- the preparedness movements • Want to ready if they go to war -- National Security League • This league wants people to be prepared for battle and more government intervention in politics In 1916, Wilson is reelected on the platform that he kept Americans out of the First • World War • By this point he doesn’t want war, but he begins to agree with the Preparedness people • The army is expands dramatically • Creates the ROTC • Th
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